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Records of the Shanghai Municipal Police 1894-1949 - Rolls 1-31929Records of the Central Intelligence Agency. Record Group 363. Pamphlet describing M1750Chinese, English, French

The text that follows is the introduction to the collection of microfilms in the guide published by the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA). The guide is also available on this digital library in the Book section.

INTRODUCTION

On the 67 rolls of this microfilm publication, M1750, are reproduced some of the Shanghai Municipal Police investigation files, 1894-1944. These files are part of the records of the Central Intelligence Agency, Record Group (RG) 263.

Background

Before World War II, Shanghai was divided into three sovereign jurisdictions. The French Concession occupied a small area close to the city center while the largest jurisdiction, both in population and area, was the Chinese Municipality of Greater Shanghai; part of the Republic of China. However, the city's commercial and industrial core, the great port, fashionable clubs, hotels, and consulates aII were located in the third jurisdiction, the International Settlement, .an entity unique in world politics. This International Settlement did not belong to any one power; its ruling body, known as the Shanghai Municipal Council and elected by the ,"ratepayers," was composed of citizens of a number of powers. Although "international" in outward appearance, during most of its history the Council was effectively controJled by British interests. The settlement's law enforcement agency was the Shanghai Municipal Police (SMP). While the force included Chinese, Indian, and later Russian and Japanese personnel, until World War II the Commissioner and senior officers were alwaj,s British. The functions of the police force were dictated by the strange political demarcations of Shanghai and by the opportunities they presented for criminal activity. ·The SMP.Special Branch also served as an intel1igence gathering and, occasionally, as an executive arm of the British Secret Intelligence Service in the Far East. As a center of political activity in China and the home of a cosmopolitan population (including thousands of White Russian emigr~. as well as 20,000 Jewish refugees), Shanghai was a natural target for intelligence operations by several powers.

In 1938, as the Japanese expanded their control over sections of China, they demanded increased representation on the Shanghai Municipal Council and also on its ·police force. After Pearl Harbor the Japanese invited the British and American personnel serving on both to continue their duties under Japanese supervision; however, by July 1942, all British officers of the SMP had been forced to resign. These individuals later spent the remainder of the war in internment camps. When the Japanese took over the city in December 1941, they left the collection of.police files largely intact. The only ones that they apparently removed were Special Branch reports on Japanese personalities. In the spring of 1949, as Communist forces approached Shanghai, the Nationalist Chinese garrison commander gave the remaining Special Branch files to the local American Strategic Services Unit (SSU), a military intelligence successor of the OSS. (The SSU was later integrated into the Central InteI1igence Agency.) When the files were hurriedly loaded on board an American warship, some of the boxes fell into the Whangpoo River; others were damaged when the ship transporting them ran into a typhoon. However, most of the files safely reached Japan and, eventually, the United States. General C. A. Willoughby, Assistant Chief of Staff, G-2 (Military Intelligence), in General Douglas MacArthur's Far Eastern Command, used the files as the main source for his special investigation of Soviet double agent Richard Sorge, who served in Shanghai in the I930's. Several volumes of extracted materials were bound up for this purpose. The records were eventually transferred to the Central Intelligence Agency and later to the National Archives.

Records  Description

Records of the Shanghai Municipal Police transferred to the National Archives included both microfilm and original records. The major portion of the microfilm, 67 rolls identified as the "investigation files," was created by the U.S. Army, apparently in support of General Willoughby'"investigative activities. It is this Army-prepared microfilm that constitutes M1750. The criteria for selection of records to be film~ are not known; the effort did not always preserve the SMP's original filing-schemes and Sometimes only portions of a particular file were filmed. Nevertheless, the film makes accessible a substantial portion of some very interesting records, and numerous researchers have requested copies of it. This publication responds to that interest. Because this film was not created under ideal filming conditions, there are problems associated with its use. Archivists working with the files of the Shanghai Municipal Police in National Archives custody have learned that while there is considerable overlap between the microfilm and the paper records, many paper records were not filmed and some filmed files were not transferred to the National Archives in paper form. Appendix A is a list of investigative files of the S:MP from which records were selected for inclusion in Ml750. The arrangement of the listed files follows as closely as possible the order apparently intended by the Shanghai Municipal Police. The list includes records that exist only on paper, records that exist only on microfilm, and records that exist both on paper and on microfilm. The list distinguishes between these record types in the following manner: list entries for records that exist only on paper include a box number, a file number. and a file description, but no roll number; list entries that exist only on microfilm include a roll number, a file number, and a file description, but no box number; and list entries that exist in both paper and microfilm include a box number, a roll number, a file number, and a file description. In some cases file descriptions are transcribed file titles, even to the extent of retaining the original British spelling of words; but in most cases they are NARA-prepared summaries of file content.

Appendix B describes other records of the Shanghai Municipal Police that have been allocated to National Archives Record Group 263. These include the "Willoughby Collection," the SMP documents selected and bound in 20 volumes by G-2 (Military Intelligence) in connection with the Sorge investigation; a microfilm copy of registration cards of Russian emigrants, 1940-4S; a microfilm copy of registration certificates of the Russian Emigrants Committee, 1944-4S; a microfilm copy of the Tsingtao Registration Cards, 194649; and miscellaneous other records.

Records of the Shanghai Municipal Police 1894-1949 - Rolls 4-61929Records of the Central Intelligence Agency. Record Group 363. Pamphlet describing M1750Chinese, English, French

The text that follows is the introduction to the collection of microfilms in the guide published by the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA). The guide is also available on this digital library in the Book section.

INTRODUCTION

On the 67 rolls of this microfilm publication, M1750, are reproduced some of the Shanghai Municipal Police investigation files, 1894-1944. These files are part of the records of the Central Intelligence Agency, Record Group (RG) 263.

Background

Before World War II, Shanghai was divided into three sovereign jurisdictions. The French Concession occupied a small area close to the city center while the largest jurisdiction, both in population and area, was the Chinese Municipality of Greater Shanghai; part of the Republic of China. However, the city's commercial and industrial core, the great port, fashionable clubs, hotels, and consulates aII were located in the third jurisdiction, the International Settlement, .an entity unique in world politics. This International Settlement did not belong to any one power; its ruling body, known as the Shanghai Municipal Council and elected by the ,"ratepayers," was composed of citizens of a number of powers. Although "international" in outward appearance, during most of its history the Council was effectively controJled by British interests. The settlement's law enforcement agency was the Shanghai Municipal Police (SMP). While the force included Chinese, Indian, and later Russian and Japanese personnel, until World War II the Commissioner and senior officers were alwaj,s British. The functions of the police force were dictated by the strange political demarcations of Shanghai and by the opportunities they presented for criminal activity. ·The SMP.Special Branch also served as an intel1igence gathering and, occasionally, as an executive arm of the British Secret Intelligence Service in the Far East. As a center of political activity in China and the home of a cosmopolitan population (including thousands of White Russian emigr~. as well as 20,000 Jewish refugees), Shanghai was a natural target for intelligence operations by several powers.

In 1938, as the Japanese expanded their control over sections of China, they demanded increased representation on the Shanghai Municipal Council and also on its ·police force. After Pearl Harbor the Japanese invited the British and American personnel serving on both to continue their duties under Japanese supervision; however, by July 1942, all British officers of the SMP had been forced to resign. These individuals later spent the remainder of the war in internment camps. When the Japanese took over the city in December 1941, they left the collection of.police files largely intact. The only ones that they apparently removed were Special Branch reports on Japanese personalities. In the spring of 1949, as Communist forces approached Shanghai, the Nationalist Chinese garrison commander gave the remaining Special Branch files to the local American Strategic Services Unit (SSU), a military intelligence successor of the OSS. (The SSU was later integrated into the Central InteI1igence Agency.) When the files were hurriedly loaded on board an American warship, some of the boxes fell into the Whangpoo River; others were damaged when the ship transporting them ran into a typhoon. However, most of the files safely reached Japan and, eventually, the United States. General C. A. Willoughby, Assistant Chief of Staff, G-2 (Military Intelligence), in General Douglas MacArthur's Far Eastern Command, used the files as the main source for his special investigation of Soviet double agent Richard Sorge, who served in Shanghai in the I930's. Several volumes of extracted materials were bound up for this purpose. The records were eventually transferred to the Central Intelligence Agency and later to the National Archives.

Records  Description

Records of the Shanghai Municipal Police transferred to the National Archives included both microfilm and original records. The major portion of the microfilm, 67 rolls identified as the "investigation files," was created by the U.S. Army, apparently in support of General Willoughby'"investigative activities. It is this Army-prepared microfilm that constitutes M1750. The criteria for selection of records to be film~ are not known; the effort did not always preserve the SMP's original filing-schemes and Sometimes only portions of a particular file were filmed. Nevertheless, the film makes accessible a substantial portion of some very interesting records, and numerous researchers have requested copies of it. This publication responds to that interest. Because this film was not created under ideal filming conditions, there are problems associated with its use. Archivists working with the files of the Shanghai Municipal Police in National Archives custody have learned that while there is considerable overlap between the microfilm and the paper records, many paper records were not filmed and some filmed files were not transferred to the National Archives in paper form. Appendix A is a list of investigative files of the S:MP from which records were selected for inclusion in Ml750. The arrangement of the listed files follows as closely as possible the order apparently intended by the Shanghai Municipal Police. The list includes records that exist only on paper, records that exist only on microfilm, and records that exist both on paper and on microfilm. The list distinguishes between these record types in the following manner: list entries for records that exist only on paper include a box number, a file number. and a file description, but no roll number; list entries that exist only on microfilm include a roll number, a file number, and a file description, but no box number; and list entries that exist in both paper and microfilm include a box number, a roll number, a file number, and a file description. In some cases file descriptions are transcribed file titles, even to the extent of retaining the original British spelling of words; but in most cases they are NARA-prepared summaries of file content.

Appendix B describes other records of the Shanghai Municipal Police that have been allocated to National Archives Record Group 263. These include the "Willoughby Collection," the SMP documents selected and bound in 20 volumes by G-2 (Military Intelligence) in connection with the Sorge investigation; a microfilm copy of registration cards of Russian emigrants, 1940-4S; a microfilm copy of registration certificates of the Russian Emigrants Committee, 1944-4S; a microfilm copy of the Tsingtao Registration Cards, 194649; and miscellaneous other records.

Records of the Shanghai Municipal Police 1894-1949 - Rolls 7-91929Records of the Central Intelligence Agency. Record Group 363. Pamphlet describing M1750Chinese, English, French

The text that follows is the introduction to the collection of microfilms in the guide published by the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA). The guide is also available on this digital library in the Book section.

INTRODUCTION

On the 67 rolls of this microfilm publication, M1750, are reproduced some of the Shanghai Municipal Police investigation files, 1894-1944. These files are part of the records of the Central Intelligence Agency, Record Group (RG) 263.

Background

Before World War II, Shanghai was divided into three sovereign jurisdictions. The French Concession occupied a small area close to the city center while the largest jurisdiction, both in population and area, was the Chinese Municipality of Greater Shanghai; part of the Republic of China. However, the city's commercial and industrial core, the great port, fashionable clubs, hotels, and consulates aII were located in the third jurisdiction, the International Settlement, .an entity unique in world politics. This International Settlement did not belong to any one power; its ruling body, known as the Shanghai Municipal Council and elected by the ,"ratepayers," was composed of citizens of a number of powers. Although "international" in outward appearance, during most of its history the Council was effectively controJled by British interests. The settlement's law enforcement agency was the Shanghai Municipal Police (SMP). While the force included Chinese, Indian, and later Russian and Japanese personnel, until World War II the Commissioner and senior officers were alwaj,s British. The functions of the police force were dictated by the strange political demarcations of Shanghai and by the opportunities they presented for criminal activity. ·The SMP.Special Branch also served as an intel1igence gathering and, occasionally, as an executive arm of the British Secret Intelligence Service in the Far East. As a center of political activity in China and the home of a cosmopolitan population (including thousands of White Russian emigr~. as well as 20,000 Jewish refugees), Shanghai was a natural target for intelligence operations by several powers.

In 1938, as the Japanese expanded their control over sections of China, they demanded increased representation on the Shanghai Municipal Council and also on its ·police force. After Pearl Harbor the Japanese invited the British and American personnel serving on both to continue their duties under Japanese supervision; however, by July 1942, all British officers of the SMP had been forced to resign. These individuals later spent the remainder of the war in internment camps. When the Japanese took over the city in December 1941, they left the collection of.police files largely intact. The only ones that they apparently removed were Special Branch reports on Japanese personalities. In the spring of 1949, as Communist forces approached Shanghai, the Nationalist Chinese garrison commander gave the remaining Special Branch files to the local American Strategic Services Unit (SSU), a military intelligence successor of the OSS. (The SSU was later integrated into the Central InteI1igence Agency.) When the files were hurriedly loaded on board an American warship, some of the boxes fell into the Whangpoo River; others were damaged when the ship transporting them ran into a typhoon. However, most of the files safely reached Japan and, eventually, the United States. General C. A. Willoughby, Assistant Chief of Staff, G-2 (Military Intelligence), in General Douglas MacArthur's Far Eastern Command, used the files as the main source for his special investigation of Soviet double agent Richard Sorge, who served in Shanghai in the I930's. Several volumes of extracted materials were bound up for this purpose. The records were eventually transferred to the Central Intelligence Agency and later to the National Archives.

Records  Description

Records of the Shanghai Municipal Police transferred to the National Archives included both microfilm and original records. The major portion of the microfilm, 67 rolls identified as the "investigation files," was created by the U.S. Army, apparently in support of General Willoughby'"investigative activities. It is this Army-prepared microfilm that constitutes M1750. The criteria for selection of records to be film~ are not known; the effort did not always preserve the SMP's original filing-schemes and Sometimes only portions of a particular file were filmed. Nevertheless, the film makes accessible a substantial portion of some very interesting records, and numerous researchers have requested copies of it. This publication responds to that interest. Because this film was not created under ideal filming conditions, there are problems associated with its use. Archivists working with the files of the Shanghai Municipal Police in National Archives custody have learned that while there is considerable overlap between the microfilm and the paper records, many paper records were not filmed and some filmed files were not transferred to the National Archives in paper form. Appendix A is a list of investigative files of the S:MP from which records were selected for inclusion in Ml750. The arrangement of the listed files follows as closely as possible the order apparently intended by the Shanghai Municipal Police. The list includes records that exist only on paper, records that exist only on microfilm, and records that exist both on paper and on microfilm. The list distinguishes between these record types in the following manner: list entries for records that exist only on paper include a box number, a file number. and a file description, but no roll number; list entries that exist only on microfilm include a roll number, a file number, and a file description, but no box number; and list entries that exist in both paper and microfilm include a box number, a roll number, a file number, and a file description. In some cases file descriptions are transcribed file titles, even to the extent of retaining the original British spelling of words; but in most cases they are NARA-prepared summaries of file content.

Appendix B describes other records of the Shanghai Municipal Police that have been allocated to National Archives Record Group 263. These include the "Willoughby Collection," the SMP documents selected and bound in 20 volumes by G-2 (Military Intelligence) in connection with the Sorge investigation; a microfilm copy of registration cards of Russian emigrants, 1940-4S; a microfilm copy of registration certificates of the Russian Emigrants Committee, 1944-4S; a microfilm copy of the Tsingtao Registration Cards, 194649; and miscellaneous other records.

Records of the Shanghai Municipal Police 1894-1949 - Rolls 10-121929Records of the Central Intelligence Agency. Record Group 363. Pamphlet describing M1750Chinese, English, French

The text that follows is the introduction to the collection of microfilms in the guide published by the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA). The guide is also available on this digital library in the Book section.

INTRODUCTION

On the 67 rolls of this microfilm publication, M1750, are reproduced some of the Shanghai Municipal Police investigation files, 1894-1944. These files are part of the records of the Central Intelligence Agency, Record Group (RG) 263.

Background

Before World War II, Shanghai was divided into three sovereign jurisdictions. The French Concession occupied a small area close to the city center while the largest jurisdiction, both in population and area, was the Chinese Municipality of Greater Shanghai; part of the Republic of China. However, the city's commercial and industrial core, the great port, fashionable clubs, hotels, and consulates aII were located in the third jurisdiction, the International Settlement, .an entity unique in world politics. This International Settlement did not belong to any one power; its ruling body, known as the Shanghai Municipal Council and elected by the ,"ratepayers," was composed of citizens of a number of powers. Although "international" in outward appearance, during most of its history the Council was effectively controJled by British interests. The settlement's law enforcement agency was the Shanghai Municipal Police (SMP). While the force included Chinese, Indian, and later Russian and Japanese personnel, until World War II the Commissioner and senior officers were alwaj,s British. The functions of the police force were dictated by the strange political demarcations of Shanghai and by the opportunities they presented for criminal activity. ·The SMP.Special Branch also served as an intel1igence gathering and, occasionally, as an executive arm of the British Secret Intelligence Service in the Far East. As a center of political activity in China and the home of a cosmopolitan population (including thousands of White Russian emigr~. as well as 20,000 Jewish refugees), Shanghai was a natural target for intelligence operations by several powers.

In 1938, as the Japanese expanded their control over sections of China, they demanded increased representation on the Shanghai Municipal Council and also on its ·police force. After Pearl Harbor the Japanese invited the British and American personnel serving on both to continue their duties under Japanese supervision; however, by July 1942, all British officers of the SMP had been forced to resign. These individuals later spent the remainder of the war in internment camps. When the Japanese took over the city in December 1941, they left the collection of.police files largely intact. The only ones that they apparently removed were Special Branch reports on Japanese personalities. In the spring of 1949, as Communist forces approached Shanghai, the Nationalist Chinese garrison commander gave the remaining Special Branch files to the local American Strategic Services Unit (SSU), a military intelligence successor of the OSS. (The SSU was later integrated into the Central InteI1igence Agency.) When the files were hurriedly loaded on board an American warship, some of the boxes fell into the Whangpoo River; others were damaged when the ship transporting them ran into a typhoon. However, most of the files safely reached Japan and, eventually, the United States. General C. A. Willoughby, Assistant Chief of Staff, G-2 (Military Intelligence), in General Douglas MacArthur's Far Eastern Command, used the files as the main source for his special investigation of Soviet double agent Richard Sorge, who served in Shanghai in the I930's. Several volumes of extracted materials were bound up for this purpose. The records were eventually transferred to the Central Intelligence Agency and later to the National Archives.

Records  Description

Records of the Shanghai Municipal Police transferred to the National Archives included both microfilm and original records. The major portion of the microfilm, 67 rolls identified as the "investigation files," was created by the U.S. Army, apparently in support of General Willoughby'"investigative activities. It is this Army-prepared microfilm that constitutes M1750. The criteria for selection of records to be film~ are not known; the effort did not always preserve the SMP's original filing-schemes and Sometimes only portions of a particular file were filmed. Nevertheless, the film makes accessible a substantial portion of some very interesting records, and numerous researchers have requested copies of it. This publication responds to that interest. Because this film was not created under ideal filming conditions, there are problems associated with its use. Archivists working with the files of the Shanghai Municipal Police in National Archives custody have learned that while there is considerable overlap between the microfilm and the paper records, many paper records were not filmed and some filmed files were not transferred to the National Archives in paper form. Appendix A is a list of investigative files of the S:MP from which records were selected for inclusion in Ml750. The arrangement of the listed files follows as closely as possible the order apparently intended by the Shanghai Municipal Police. The list includes records that exist only on paper, records that exist only on microfilm, and records that exist both on paper and on microfilm. The list distinguishes between these record types in the following manner: list entries for records that exist only on paper include a box number, a file number. and a file description, but no roll number; list entries that exist only on microfilm include a roll number, a file number, and a file description, but no box number; and list entries that exist in both paper and microfilm include a box number, a roll number, a file number, and a file description. In some cases file descriptions are transcribed file titles, even to the extent of retaining the original British spelling of words; but in most cases they are NARA-prepared summaries of file content.

Appendix B describes other records of the Shanghai Municipal Police that have been allocated to National Archives Record Group 263. These include the "Willoughby Collection," the SMP documents selected and bound in 20 volumes by G-2 (Military Intelligence) in connection with the Sorge investigation; a microfilm copy of registration cards of Russian emigrants, 1940-4S; a microfilm copy of registration certificates of the Russian Emigrants Committee, 1944-4S; a microfilm copy of the Tsingtao Registration Cards, 194649; and miscellaneous other records.

Records of the Shanghai Municipal Police 1894-1949 - Rolls 13-151929Records of the Central Intelligence Agency. Record Group 363. Pamphlet describing M1750Chinese, English, French

The text that follows is the introduction to the collection of microfilms in the guide published by the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA). The guide is also available on this digital library in the Book section.

INTRODUCTION

On the 67 rolls of this microfilm publication, M1750, are reproduced some of the Shanghai Municipal Police investigation files, 1894-1944. These files are part of the records of the Central Intelligence Agency, Record Group (RG) 263.

Background

Before World War II, Shanghai was divided into three sovereign jurisdictions. The French Concession occupied a small area close to the city center while the largest jurisdiction, both in population and area, was the Chinese Municipality of Greater Shanghai; part of the Republic of China. However, the city's commercial and industrial core, the great port, fashionable clubs, hotels, and consulates aII were located in the third jurisdiction, the International Settlement, .an entity unique in world politics. This International Settlement did not belong to any one power; its ruling body, known as the Shanghai Municipal Council and elected by the ,"ratepayers," was composed of citizens of a number of powers. Although "international" in outward appearance, during most of its history the Council was effectively controJled by British interests. The settlement's law enforcement agency was the Shanghai Municipal Police (SMP). While the force included Chinese, Indian, and later Russian and Japanese personnel, until World War II the Commissioner and senior officers were alwaj,s British. The functions of the police force were dictated by the strange political demarcations of Shanghai and by the opportunities they presented for criminal activity. ·The SMP.Special Branch also served as an intel1igence gathering and, occasionally, as an executive arm of the British Secret Intelligence Service in the Far East. As a center of political activity in China and the home of a cosmopolitan population (including thousands of White Russian emigr~. as well as 20,000 Jewish refugees), Shanghai was a natural target for intelligence operations by several powers.

In 1938, as the Japanese expanded their control over sections of China, they demanded increased representation on the Shanghai Municipal Council and also on its ·police force. After Pearl Harbor the Japanese invited the British and American personnel serving on both to continue their duties under Japanese supervision; however, by July 1942, all British officers of the SMP had been forced to resign. These individuals later spent the remainder of the war in internment camps. When the Japanese took over the city in December 1941, they left the collection of.police files largely intact. The only ones that they apparently removed were Special Branch reports on Japanese personalities. In the spring of 1949, as Communist forces approached Shanghai, the Nationalist Chinese garrison commander gave the remaining Special Branch files to the local American Strategic Services Unit (SSU), a military intelligence successor of the OSS. (The SSU was later integrated into the Central InteI1igence Agency.) When the files were hurriedly loaded on board an American warship, some of the boxes fell into the Whangpoo River; others were damaged when the ship transporting them ran into a typhoon. However, most of the files safely reached Japan and, eventually, the United States. General C. A. Willoughby, Assistant Chief of Staff, G-2 (Military Intelligence), in General Douglas MacArthur's Far Eastern Command, used the files as the main source for his special investigation of Soviet double agent Richard Sorge, who served in Shanghai in the I930's. Several volumes of extracted materials were bound up for this purpose. The records were eventually transferred to the Central Intelligence Agency and later to the National Archives.

Records  Description

Records of the Shanghai Municipal Police transferred to the National Archives included both microfilm and original records. The major portion of the microfilm, 67 rolls identified as the "investigation files," was created by the U.S. Army, apparently in support of General Willoughby'"investigative activities. It is this Army-prepared microfilm that constitutes M1750. The criteria for selection of records to be film~ are not known; the effort did not always preserve the SMP's original filing-schemes and Sometimes only portions of a particular file were filmed. Nevertheless, the film makes accessible a substantial portion of some very interesting records, and numerous researchers have requested copies of it. This publication responds to that interest. Because this film was not created under ideal filming conditions, there are problems associated with its use. Archivists working with the files of the Shanghai Municipal Police in National Archives custody have learned that while there is considerable overlap between the microfilm and the paper records, many paper records were not filmed and some filmed files were not transferred to the National Archives in paper form. Appendix A is a list of investigative files of the S:MP from which records were selected for inclusion in Ml750. The arrangement of the listed files follows as closely as possible the order apparently intended by the Shanghai Municipal Police. The list includes records that exist only on paper, records that exist only on microfilm, and records that exist both on paper and on microfilm. The list distinguishes between these record types in the following manner: list entries for records that exist only on paper include a box number, a file number. and a file description, but no roll number; list entries that exist only on microfilm include a roll number, a file number, and a file description, but no box number; and list entries that exist in both paper and microfilm include a box number, a roll number, a file number, and a file description. In some cases file descriptions are transcribed file titles, even to the extent of retaining the original British spelling of words; but in most cases they are NARA-prepared summaries of file content.

Appendix B describes other records of the Shanghai Municipal Police that have been allocated to National Archives Record Group 263. These include the "Willoughby Collection," the SMP documents selected and bound in 20 volumes by G-2 (Military Intelligence) in connection with the Sorge investigation; a microfilm copy of registration cards of Russian emigrants, 1940-4S; a microfilm copy of registration certificates of the Russian Emigrants Committee, 1944-4S; a microfilm copy of the Tsingtao Registration Cards, 194649; and miscellaneous other records.

Records of the Shanghai Municipal Police 1894-1949 - Rolls 16-181929Records of the Central Intelligence Agency. Record Group 363. Pamphlet describing M1750Chinese, English, French

The text that follows is the introduction to the collection of microfilms in the guide published by the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA). The guide is also available on this digital library in the Book section.

INTRODUCTION

On the 67 rolls of this microfilm publication, M1750, are reproduced some of the Shanghai Municipal Police investigation files, 1894-1944. These files are part of the records of the Central Intelligence Agency, Record Group (RG) 263.

Background

Before World War II, Shanghai was divided into three sovereign jurisdictions. The French Concession occupied a small area close to the city center while the largest jurisdiction, both in population and area, was the Chinese Municipality of Greater Shanghai; part of the Republic of China. However, the city's commercial and industrial core, the great port, fashionable clubs, hotels, and consulates aII were located in the third jurisdiction, the International Settlement, .an entity unique in world politics. This International Settlement did not belong to any one power; its ruling body, known as the Shanghai Municipal Council and elected by the ,"ratepayers," was composed of citizens of a number of powers. Although "international" in outward appearance, during most of its history the Council was effectively controJled by British interests. The settlement's law enforcement agency was the Shanghai Municipal Police (SMP). While the force included Chinese, Indian, and later Russian and Japanese personnel, until World War II the Commissioner and senior officers were alwaj,s British. The functions of the police force were dictated by the strange political demarcations of Shanghai and by the opportunities they presented for criminal activity. ·The SMP.Special Branch also served as an intel1igence gathering and, occasionally, as an executive arm of the British Secret Intelligence Service in the Far East. As a center of political activity in China and the home of a cosmopolitan population (including thousands of White Russian emigr~. as well as 20,000 Jewish refugees), Shanghai was a natural target for intelligence operations by several powers.

In 1938, as the Japanese expanded their control over sections of China, they demanded increased representation on the Shanghai Municipal Council and also on its ·police force. After Pearl Harbor the Japanese invited the British and American personnel serving on both to continue their duties under Japanese supervision; however, by July 1942, all British officers of the SMP had been forced to resign. These individuals later spent the remainder of the war in internment camps. When the Japanese took over the city in December 1941, they left the collection of.police files largely intact. The only ones that they apparently removed were Special Branch reports on Japanese personalities. In the spring of 1949, as Communist forces approached Shanghai, the Nationalist Chinese garrison commander gave the remaining Special Branch files to the local American Strategic Services Unit (SSU), a military intelligence successor of the OSS. (The SSU was later integrated into the Central InteI1igence Agency.) When the files were hurriedly loaded on board an American warship, some of the boxes fell into the Whangpoo River; others were damaged when the ship transporting them ran into a typhoon. However, most of the files safely reached Japan and, eventually, the United States. General C. A. Willoughby, Assistant Chief of Staff, G-2 (Military Intelligence), in General Douglas MacArthur's Far Eastern Command, used the files as the main source for his special investigation of Soviet double agent Richard Sorge, who served in Shanghai in the I930's. Several volumes of extracted materials were bound up for this purpose. The records were eventually transferred to the Central Intelligence Agency and later to the National Archives.

Records  Description

Records of the Shanghai Municipal Police transferred to the National Archives included both microfilm and original records. The major portion of the microfilm, 67 rolls identified as the "investigation files," was created by the U.S. Army, apparently in support of General Willoughby'"investigative activities. It is this Army-prepared microfilm that constitutes M1750. The criteria for selection of records to be film~ are not known; the effort did not always preserve the SMP's original filing-schemes and Sometimes only portions of a particular file were filmed. Nevertheless, the film makes accessible a substantial portion of some very interesting records, and numerous researchers have requested copies of it. This publication responds to that interest. Because this film was not created under ideal filming conditions, there are problems associated with its use. Archivists working with the files of the Shanghai Municipal Police in National Archives custody have learned that while there is considerable overlap between the microfilm and the paper records, many paper records were not filmed and some filmed files were not transferred to the National Archives in paper form. Appendix A is a list of investigative files of the S:MP from which records were selected for inclusion in Ml750. The arrangement of the listed files follows as closely as possible the order apparently intended by the Shanghai Municipal Police. The list includes records that exist only on paper, records that exist only on microfilm, and records that exist both on paper and on microfilm. The list distinguishes between these record types in the following manner: list entries for records that exist only on paper include a box number, a file number. and a file description, but no roll number; list entries that exist only on microfilm include a roll number, a file number, and a file description, but no box number; and list entries that exist in both paper and microfilm include a box number, a roll number, a file number, and a file description. In some cases file descriptions are transcribed file titles, even to the extent of retaining the original British spelling of words; but in most cases they are NARA-prepared summaries of file content.

Appendix B describes other records of the Shanghai Municipal Police that have been allocated to National Archives Record Group 263. These include the "Willoughby Collection," the SMP documents selected and bound in 20 volumes by G-2 (Military Intelligence) in connection with the Sorge investigation; a microfilm copy of registration cards of Russian emigrants, 1940-4S; a microfilm copy of registration certificates of the Russian Emigrants Committee, 1944-4S; a microfilm copy of the Tsingtao Registration Cards, 194649; and miscellaneous other records.

Records of the Shanghai Municipal Police 1894-1949 - Rolls 19-211929Records of the Central Intelligence Agency. Record Group 363. Pamphlet describing M1750Chinese, English, French

The text that follows is the introduction to the collection of microfilms in the guide published by the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA). The guide is also available on this digital library in the Book section.

INTRODUCTION

On the 67 rolls of this microfilm publication, M1750, are reproduced some of the Shanghai Municipal Police investigation files, 1894-1944. These files are part of the records of the Central Intelligence Agency, Record Group (RG) 263.

Background

Before World War II, Shanghai was divided into three sovereign jurisdictions. The French Concession occupied a small area close to the city center while the largest jurisdiction, both in population and area, was the Chinese Municipality of Greater Shanghai; part of the Republic of China. However, the city's commercial and industrial core, the great port, fashionable clubs, hotels, and consulates aII were located in the third jurisdiction, the International Settlement, .an entity unique in world politics. This International Settlement did not belong to any one power; its ruling body, known as the Shanghai Municipal Council and elected by the ,"ratepayers," was composed of citizens of a number of powers. Although "international" in outward appearance, during most of its history the Council was effectively controJled by British interests. The settlement's law enforcement agency was the Shanghai Municipal Police (SMP). While the force included Chinese, Indian, and later Russian and Japanese personnel, until World War II the Commissioner and senior officers were alwaj,s British. The functions of the police force were dictated by the strange political demarcations of Shanghai and by the opportunities they presented for criminal activity. ·The SMP.Special Branch also served as an intel1igence gathering and, occasionally, as an executive arm of the British Secret Intelligence Service in the Far East. As a center of political activity in China and the home of a cosmopolitan population (including thousands of White Russian emigr~. as well as 20,000 Jewish refugees), Shanghai was a natural target for intelligence operations by several powers.

In 1938, as the Japanese expanded their control over sections of China, they demanded increased representation on the Shanghai Municipal Council and also on its ·police force. After Pearl Harbor the Japanese invited the British and American personnel serving on both to continue their duties under Japanese supervision; however, by July 1942, all British officers of the SMP had been forced to resign. These individuals later spent the remainder of the war in internment camps. When the Japanese took over the city in December 1941, they left the collection of.police files largely intact. The only ones that they apparently removed were Special Branch reports on Japanese personalities. In the spring of 1949, as Communist forces approached Shanghai, the Nationalist Chinese garrison commander gave the remaining Special Branch files to the local American Strategic Services Unit (SSU), a military intelligence successor of the OSS. (The SSU was later integrated into the Central InteI1igence Agency.) When the files were hurriedly loaded on board an American warship, some of the boxes fell into the Whangpoo River; others were damaged when the ship transporting them ran into a typhoon. However, most of the files safely reached Japan and, eventually, the United States. General C. A. Willoughby, Assistant Chief of Staff, G-2 (Military Intelligence), in General Douglas MacArthur's Far Eastern Command, used the files as the main source for his special investigation of Soviet double agent Richard Sorge, who served in Shanghai in the I930's. Several volumes of extracted materials were bound up for this purpose. The records were eventually transferred to the Central Intelligence Agency and later to the National Archives.

Records  Description

Records of the Shanghai Municipal Police transferred to the National Archives included both microfilm and original records. The major portion of the microfilm, 67 rolls identified as the "investigation files," was created by the U.S. Army, apparently in support of General Willoughby'"investigative activities. It is this Army-prepared microfilm that constitutes M1750. The criteria for selection of records to be film~ are not known; the effort did not always preserve the SMP's original filing-schemes and Sometimes only portions of a particular file were filmed. Nevertheless, the film makes accessible a substantial portion of some very interesting records, and numerous researchers have requested copies of it. This publication responds to that interest. Because this film was not created under ideal filming conditions, there are problems associated with its use. Archivists working with the files of the Shanghai Municipal Police in National Archives custody have learned that while there is considerable overlap between the microfilm and the paper records, many paper records were not filmed and some filmed files were not transferred to the National Archives in paper form. Appendix A is a list of investigative files of the S:MP from which records were selected for inclusion in Ml750. The arrangement of the listed files follows as closely as possible the order apparently intended by the Shanghai Municipal Police. The list includes records that exist only on paper, records that exist only on microfilm, and records that exist both on paper and on microfilm. The list distinguishes between these record types in the following manner: list entries for records that exist only on paper include a box number, a file number. and a file description, but no roll number; list entries that exist only on microfilm include a roll number, a file number, and a file description, but no box number; and list entries that exist in both paper and microfilm include a box number, a roll number, a file number, and a file description. In some cases file descriptions are transcribed file titles, even to the extent of retaining the original British spelling of words; but in most cases they are NARA-prepared summaries of file content.

Appendix B describes other records of the Shanghai Municipal Police that have been allocated to National Archives Record Group 263. These include the "Willoughby Collection," the SMP documents selected and bound in 20 volumes by G-2 (Military Intelligence) in connection with the Sorge investigation; a microfilm copy of registration cards of Russian emigrants, 1940-4S; a microfilm copy of registration certificates of the Russian Emigrants Committee, 1944-4S; a microfilm copy of the Tsingtao Registration Cards, 194649; and miscellaneous other records.

Records of the Shanghai Municipal Police 1894-1949 - Rolls 22-231929Records of the Central Intelligence Agency. Record Group 363. Pamphlet describing M1750Chinese, English, French

The text that follows is the introduction to the collection of microfilms in the guide published by the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA). The guide is also available on this digital library in the Book section.

INTRODUCTION

On the 67 rolls of this microfilm publication, M1750, are reproduced some of the Shanghai Municipal Police investigation files, 1894-1944. These files are part of the records of the Central Intelligence Agency, Record Group (RG) 263.

Background

Before World War II, Shanghai was divided into three sovereign jurisdictions. The French Concession occupied a small area close to the city center while the largest jurisdiction, both in population and area, was the Chinese Municipality of Greater Shanghai; part of the Republic of China. However, the city's commercial and industrial core, the great port, fashionable clubs, hotels, and consulates aII were located in the third jurisdiction, the International Settlement, .an entity unique in world politics. This International Settlement did not belong to any one power; its ruling body, known as the Shanghai Municipal Council and elected by the ,"ratepayers," was composed of citizens of a number of powers. Although "international" in outward appearance, during most of its history the Council was effectively controJled by British interests. The settlement's law enforcement agency was the Shanghai Municipal Police (SMP). While the force included Chinese, Indian, and later Russian and Japanese personnel, until World War II the Commissioner and senior officers were alwaj,s British. The functions of the police force were dictated by the strange political demarcations of Shanghai and by the opportunities they presented for criminal activity. ·The SMP.Special Branch also served as an intel1igence gathering and, occasionally, as an executive arm of the British Secret Intelligence Service in the Far East. As a center of political activity in China and the home of a cosmopolitan population (including thousands of White Russian emigr~. as well as 20,000 Jewish refugees), Shanghai was a natural target for intelligence operations by several powers.

In 1938, as the Japanese expanded their control over sections of China, they demanded increased representation on the Shanghai Municipal Council and also on its ·police force. After Pearl Harbor the Japanese invited the British and American personnel serving on both to continue their duties under Japanese supervision; however, by July 1942, all British officers of the SMP had been forced to resign. These individuals later spent the remainder of the war in internment camps. When the Japanese took over the city in December 1941, they left the collection of.police files largely intact. The only ones that they apparently removed were Special Branch reports on Japanese personalities. In the spring of 1949, as Communist forces approached Shanghai, the Nationalist Chinese garrison commander gave the remaining Special Branch files to the local American Strategic Services Unit (SSU), a military intelligence successor of the OSS. (The SSU was later integrated into the Central InteI1igence Agency.) When the files were hurriedly loaded on board an American warship, some of the boxes fell into the Whangpoo River; others were damaged when the ship transporting them ran into a typhoon. However, most of the files safely reached Japan and, eventually, the United States. General C. A. Willoughby, Assistant Chief of Staff, G-2 (Military Intelligence), in General Douglas MacArthur's Far Eastern Command, used the files as the main source for his special investigation of Soviet double agent Richard Sorge, who served in Shanghai in the I930's. Several volumes of extracted materials were bound up for this purpose. The records were eventually transferred to the Central Intelligence Agency and later to the National Archives.

Records  Description

Records of the Shanghai Municipal Police transferred to the National Archives included both microfilm and original records. The major portion of the microfilm, 67 rolls identified as the "investigation files," was created by the U.S. Army, apparently in support of General Willoughby'"investigative activities. It is this Army-prepared microfilm that constitutes M1750. The criteria for selection of records to be film~ are not known; the effort did not always preserve the SMP's original filing-schemes and Sometimes only portions of a particular file were filmed. Nevertheless, the film makes accessible a substantial portion of some very interesting records, and numerous researchers have requested copies of it. This publication responds to that interest. Because this film was not created under ideal filming conditions, there are problems associated with its use. Archivists working with the files of the Shanghai Municipal Police in National Archives custody have learned that while there is considerable overlap between the microfilm and the paper records, many paper records were not filmed and some filmed files were not transferred to the National Archives in paper form. Appendix A is a list of investigative files of the S:MP from which records were selected for inclusion in Ml750. The arrangement of the listed files follows as closely as possible the order apparently intended by the Shanghai Municipal Police. The list includes records that exist only on paper, records that exist only on microfilm, and records that exist both on paper and on microfilm. The list distinguishes between these record types in the following manner: list entries for records that exist only on paper include a box number, a file number. and a file description, but no roll number; list entries that exist only on microfilm include a roll number, a file number, and a file description, but no box number; and list entries that exist in both paper and microfilm include a box number, a roll number, a file number, and a file description. In some cases file descriptions are transcribed file titles, even to the extent of retaining the original British spelling of words; but in most cases they are NARA-prepared summaries of file content.

Appendix B describes other records of the Shanghai Municipal Police that have been allocated to National Archives Record Group 263. These include the "Willoughby Collection," the SMP documents selected and bound in 20 volumes by G-2 (Military Intelligence) in connection with the Sorge investigation; a microfilm copy of registration cards of Russian emigrants, 1940-4S; a microfilm copy of registration certificates of the Russian Emigrants Committee, 1944-4S; a microfilm copy of the Tsingtao Registration Cards, 194649; and miscellaneous other records.

Records of the Shanghai Municipal Police 1894-1949 - Rolls 24-261929Records of the Central Intelligence Agency. Record Group 363. Pamphlet describing M1750Chinese, English, French

The text that follows is the introduction to the collection of microfilms in the guide published by the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA). The guide is also available on this digital library in the Book section.

INTRODUCTION

On the 67 rolls of this microfilm publication, M1750, are reproduced some of the Shanghai Municipal Police investigation files, 1894-1944. These files are part of the records of the Central Intelligence Agency, Record Group (RG) 263.

Background

Before World War II, Shanghai was divided into three sovereign jurisdictions. The French Concession occupied a small area close to the city center while the largest jurisdiction, both in population and area, was the Chinese Municipality of Greater Shanghai; part of the Republic of China. However, the city's commercial and industrial core, the great port, fashionable clubs, hotels, and consulates aII were located in the third jurisdiction, the International Settlement, .an entity unique in world politics. This International Settlement did not belong to any one power; its ruling body, known as the Shanghai Municipal Council and elected by the ,"ratepayers," was composed of citizens of a number of powers. Although "international" in outward appearance, during most of its history the Council was effectively controJled by British interests. The settlement's law enforcement agency was the Shanghai Municipal Police (SMP). While the force included Chinese, Indian, and later Russian and Japanese personnel, until World War II the Commissioner and senior officers were alwaj,s British. The functions of the police force were dictated by the strange political demarcations of Shanghai and by the opportunities they presented for criminal activity. ·The SMP.Special Branch also served as an intel1igence gathering and, occasionally, as an executive arm of the British Secret Intelligence Service in the Far East. As a center of political activity in China and the home of a cosmopolitan population (including thousands of White Russian emigr~. as well as 20,000 Jewish refugees), Shanghai was a natural target for intelligence operations by several powers.

In 1938, as the Japanese expanded their control over sections of China, they demanded increased representation on the Shanghai Municipal Council and also on its ·police force. After Pearl Harbor the Japanese invited the British and American personnel serving on both to continue their duties under Japanese supervision; however, by July 1942, all British officers of the SMP had been forced to resign. These individuals later spent the remainder of the war in internment camps. When the Japanese took over the city in December 1941, they left the collection of.police files largely intact. The only ones that they apparently removed were Special Branch reports on Japanese personalities. In the spring of 1949, as Communist forces approached Shanghai, the Nationalist Chinese garrison commander gave the remaining Special Branch files to the local American Strategic Services Unit (SSU), a military intelligence successor of the OSS. (The SSU was later integrated into the Central InteI1igence Agency.) When the files were hurriedly loaded on board an American warship, some of the boxes fell into the Whangpoo River; others were damaged when the ship transporting them ran into a typhoon. However, most of the files safely reached Japan and, eventually, the United States. General C. A. Willoughby, Assistant Chief of Staff, G-2 (Military Intelligence), in General Douglas MacArthur's Far Eastern Command, used the files as the main source for his special investigation of Soviet double agent Richard Sorge, who served in Shanghai in the I930's. Several volumes of extracted materials were bound up for this purpose. The records were eventually transferred to the Central Intelligence Agency and later to the National Archives.

Records  Description

Records of the Shanghai Municipal Police transferred to the National Archives included both microfilm and original records. The major portion of the microfilm, 67 rolls identified as the "investigation files," was created by the U.S. Army, apparently in support of General Willoughby'"investigative activities. It is this Army-prepared microfilm that constitutes M1750. The criteria for selection of records to be film~ are not known; the effort did not always preserve the SMP's original filing-schemes and Sometimes only portions of a particular file were filmed. Nevertheless, the film makes accessible a substantial portion of some very interesting records, and numerous researchers have requested copies of it. This publication responds to that interest. Because this film was not created under ideal filming conditions, there are problems associated with its use. Archivists working with the files of the Shanghai Municipal Police in National Archives custody have learned that while there is considerable overlap between the microfilm and the paper records, many paper records were not filmed and some filmed files were not transferred to the National Archives in paper form. Appendix A is a list of investigative files of the S:MP from which records were selected for inclusion in Ml750. The arrangement of the listed files follows as closely as possible the order apparently intended by the Shanghai Municipal Police. The list includes records that exist only on paper, records that exist only on microfilm, and records that exist both on paper and on microfilm. The list distinguishes between these record types in the following manner: list entries for records that exist only on paper include a box number, a file number. and a file description, but no roll number; list entries that exist only on microfilm include a roll number, a file number, and a file description, but no box number; and list entries that exist in both paper and microfilm include a box number, a roll number, a file number, and a file description. In some cases file descriptions are transcribed file titles, even to the extent of retaining the original British spelling of words; but in most cases they are NARA-prepared summaries of file content.

Appendix B describes other records of the Shanghai Municipal Police that have been allocated to National Archives Record Group 263. These include the "Willoughby Collection," the SMP documents selected and bound in 20 volumes by G-2 (Military Intelligence) in connection with the Sorge investigation; a microfilm copy of registration cards of Russian emigrants, 1940-4S; a microfilm copy of registration certificates of the Russian Emigrants Committee, 1944-4S; a microfilm copy of the Tsingtao Registration Cards, 194649; and miscellaneous other records.

Records of the Shanghai Municipal Police 1894-1949 - Rolls 27-291929Records of the Central Intelligence Agency. Record Group 363. Pamphlet describing M1750Chinese, English, French

The text that follows is the introduction to the collection of microfilms in the guide published by the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA). The guide is also available on this digital library in the Book section.

INTRODUCTION

On the 67 rolls of this microfilm publication, M1750, are reproduced some of the Shanghai Municipal Police investigation files, 1894-1944. These files are part of the records of the Central Intelligence Agency, Record Group (RG) 263.

Background

Before World War II, Shanghai was divided into three sovereign jurisdictions. The French Concession occupied a small area close to the city center while the largest jurisdiction, both in population and area, was the Chinese Municipality of Greater Shanghai; part of the Republic of China. However, the city's commercial and industrial core, the great port, fashionable clubs, hotels, and consulates aII were located in the third jurisdiction, the International Settlement, .an entity unique in world politics. This International Settlement did not belong to any one power; its ruling body, known as the Shanghai Municipal Council and elected by the ,"ratepayers," was composed of citizens of a number of powers. Although "international" in outward appearance, during most of its history the Council was effectively controJled by British interests. The settlement's law enforcement agency was the Shanghai Municipal Police (SMP). While the force included Chinese, Indian, and later Russian and Japanese personnel, until World War II the Commissioner and senior officers were alwaj,s British. The functions of the police force were dictated by the strange political demarcations of Shanghai and by the opportunities they presented for criminal activity. ·The SMP.Special Branch also served as an intel1igence gathering and, occasionally, as an executive arm of the British Secret Intelligence Service in the Far East. As a center of political activity in China and the home of a cosmopolitan population (including thousands of White Russian emigr~. as well as 20,000 Jewish refugees), Shanghai was a natural target for intelligence operations by several powers.

In 1938, as the Japanese expanded their control over sections of China, they demanded increased representation on the Shanghai Municipal Council and also on its ·police force. After Pearl Harbor the Japanese invited the British and American personnel serving on both to continue their duties under Japanese supervision; however, by July 1942, all British officers of the SMP had been forced to resign. These individuals later spent the remainder of the war in internment camps. When the Japanese took over the city in December 1941, they left the collection of.police files largely intact. The only ones that they apparently removed were Special Branch reports on Japanese personalities. In the spring of 1949, as Communist forces approached Shanghai, the Nationalist Chinese garrison commander gave the remaining Special Branch files to the local American Strategic Services Unit (SSU), a military intelligence successor of the OSS. (The SSU was later integrated into the Central InteI1igence Agency.) When the files were hurriedly loaded on board an American warship, some of the boxes fell into the Whangpoo River; others were damaged when the ship transporting them ran into a typhoon. However, most of the files safely reached Japan and, eventually, the United States. General C. A. Willoughby, Assistant Chief of Staff, G-2 (Military Intelligence), in General Douglas MacArthur's Far Eastern Command, used the files as the main source for his special investigation of Soviet double agent Richard Sorge, who served in Shanghai in the I930's. Several volumes of extracted materials were bound up for this purpose. The records were eventually transferred to the Central Intelligence Agency and later to the National Archives.

Records  Description

Records of the Shanghai Municipal Police transferred to the National Archives included both microfilm and original records. The major portion of the microfilm, 67 rolls identified as the "investigation files," was created by the U.S. Army, apparently in support of General Willoughby'"investigative activities. It is this Army-prepared microfilm that constitutes M1750. The criteria for selection of records to be film~ are not known; the effort did not always preserve the SMP's original filing-schemes and Sometimes only portions of a particular file were filmed. Nevertheless, the film makes accessible a substantial portion of some very interesting records, and numerous researchers have requested copies of it. This publication responds to that interest. Because this film was not created under ideal filming conditions, there are problems associated with its use. Archivists working with the files of the Shanghai Municipal Police in National Archives custody have learned that while there is considerable overlap between the microfilm and the paper records, many paper records were not filmed and some filmed files were not transferred to the National Archives in paper form. Appendix A is a list of investigative files of the S:MP from which records were selected for inclusion in Ml750. The arrangement of the listed files follows as closely as possible the order apparently intended by the Shanghai Municipal Police. The list includes records that exist only on paper, records that exist only on microfilm, and records that exist both on paper and on microfilm. The list distinguishes between these record types in the following manner: list entries for records that exist only on paper include a box number, a file number. and a file description, but no roll number; list entries that exist only on microfilm include a roll number, a file number, and a file description, but no box number; and list entries that exist in both paper and microfilm include a box number, a roll number, a file number, and a file description. In some cases file descriptions are transcribed file titles, even to the extent of retaining the original British spelling of words; but in most cases they are NARA-prepared summaries of file content.

Appendix B describes other records of the Shanghai Municipal Police that have been allocated to National Archives Record Group 263. These include the "Willoughby Collection," the SMP documents selected and bound in 20 volumes by G-2 (Military Intelligence) in connection with the Sorge investigation; a microfilm copy of registration cards of Russian emigrants, 1940-4S; a microfilm copy of registration certificates of the Russian Emigrants Committee, 1944-4S; a microfilm copy of the Tsingtao Registration Cards, 194649; and miscellaneous other records.

Records of the Shanghai Municipal Police 1894-1949 - Rolls 30-321929Records of the Central Intelligence Agency. Record Group 363. Pamphlet describing M1750Chinese, English, French

The text that follows is the introduction to the collection of microfilms in the guide published by the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA). The guide is also available on this digital library in the Book section.

INTRODUCTION

On the 67 rolls of this microfilm publication, M1750, are reproduced some of the Shanghai Municipal Police investigation files, 1894-1944. These files are part of the records of the Central Intelligence Agency, Record Group (RG) 263.

Background

Before World War II, Shanghai was divided into three sovereign jurisdictions. The French Concession occupied a small area close to the city center while the largest jurisdiction, both in population and area, was the Chinese Municipality of Greater Shanghai; part of the Republic of China. However, the city's commercial and industrial core, the great port, fashionable clubs, hotels, and consulates aII were located in the third jurisdiction, the International Settlement, .an entity unique in world politics. This International Settlement did not belong to any one power; its ruling body, known as the Shanghai Municipal Council and elected by the ,"ratepayers," was composed of citizens of a number of powers. Although "international" in outward appearance, during most of its history the Council was effectively controJled by British interests. The settlement's law enforcement agency was the Shanghai Municipal Police (SMP). While the force included Chinese, Indian, and later Russian and Japanese personnel, until World War II the Commissioner and senior officers were alwaj,s British. The functions of the police force were dictated by the strange political demarcations of Shanghai and by the opportunities they presented for criminal activity. ·The SMP.Special Branch also served as an intel1igence gathering and, occasionally, as an executive arm of the British Secret Intelligence Service in the Far East. As a center of political activity in China and the home of a cosmopolitan population (including thousands of White Russian emigr~. as well as 20,000 Jewish refugees), Shanghai was a natural target for intelligence operations by several powers.

In 1938, as the Japanese expanded their control over sections of China, they demanded increased representation on the Shanghai Municipal Council and also on its ·police force. After Pearl Harbor the Japanese invited the British and American personnel serving on both to continue their duties under Japanese supervision; however, by July 1942, all British officers of the SMP had been forced to resign. These individuals later spent the remainder of the war in internment camps. When the Japanese took over the city in December 1941, they left the collection of.police files largely intact. The only ones that they apparently removed were Special Branch reports on Japanese personalities. In the spring of 1949, as Communist forces approached Shanghai, the Nationalist Chinese garrison commander gave the remaining Special Branch files to the local American Strategic Services Unit (SSU), a military intelligence successor of the OSS. (The SSU was later integrated into the Central InteI1igence Agency.) When the files were hurriedly loaded on board an American warship, some of the boxes fell into the Whangpoo River; others were damaged when the ship transporting them ran into a typhoon. However, most of the files safely reached Japan and, eventually, the United States. General C. A. Willoughby, Assistant Chief of Staff, G-2 (Military Intelligence), in General Douglas MacArthur's Far Eastern Command, used the files as the main source for his special investigation of Soviet double agent Richard Sorge, who served in Shanghai in the I930's. Several volumes of extracted materials were bound up for this purpose. The records were eventually transferred to the Central Intelligence Agency and later to the National Archives.

Records  Description

Records of the Shanghai Municipal Police transferred to the National Archives included both microfilm and original records. The major portion of the microfilm, 67 rolls identified as the "investigation files," was created by the U.S. Army, apparently in support of General Willoughby'"investigative activities. It is this Army-prepared microfilm that constitutes M1750. The criteria for selection of records to be film~ are not known; the effort did not always preserve the SMP's original filing-schemes and Sometimes only portions of a particular file were filmed. Nevertheless, the film makes accessible a substantial portion of some very interesting records, and numerous researchers have requested copies of it. This publication responds to that interest. Because this film was not created under ideal filming conditions, there are problems associated with its use. Archivists working with the files of the Shanghai Municipal Police in National Archives custody have learned that while there is considerable overlap between the microfilm and the paper records, many paper records were not filmed and some filmed files were not transferred to the National Archives in paper form. Appendix A is a list of investigative files of the S:MP from which records were selected for inclusion in Ml750. The arrangement of the listed files follows as closely as possible the order apparently intended by the Shanghai Municipal Police. The list includes records that exist only on paper, records that exist only on microfilm, and records that exist both on paper and on microfilm. The list distinguishes between these record types in the following manner: list entries for records that exist only on paper include a box number, a file number. and a file description, but no roll number; list entries that exist only on microfilm include a roll number, a file number, and a file description, but no box number; and list entries that exist in both paper and microfilm include a box number, a roll number, a file number, and a file description. In some cases file descriptions are transcribed file titles, even to the extent of retaining the original British spelling of words; but in most cases they are NARA-prepared summaries of file content.

Appendix B describes other records of the Shanghai Municipal Police that have been allocated to National Archives Record Group 263. These include the "Willoughby Collection," the SMP documents selected and bound in 20 volumes by G-2 (Military Intelligence) in connection with the Sorge investigation; a microfilm copy of registration cards of Russian emigrants, 1940-4S; a microfilm copy of registration certificates of the Russian Emigrants Committee, 1944-4S; a microfilm copy of the Tsingtao Registration Cards, 194649; and miscellaneous other records.

Records of the Shanghai Municipal Police 1894-1949 - Rolls 33-351929Records of the Central Intelligence Agency. Record Group 363. Pamphlet describing M1750Chinese, English, French

The text that follows is the introduction to the collection of microfilms in the guide published by the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA). The guide is also available on this digital library in the Book section.

INTRODUCTION

On the 67 rolls of this microfilm publication, M1750, are reproduced some of the Shanghai Municipal Police investigation files, 1894-1944. These files are part of the records of the Central Intelligence Agency, Record Group (RG) 263.

Background

Before World War II, Shanghai was divided into three sovereign jurisdictions. The French Concession occupied a small area close to the city center while the largest jurisdiction, both in population and area, was the Chinese Municipality of Greater Shanghai; part of the Republic of China. However, the city's commercial and industrial core, the great port, fashionable clubs, hotels, and consulates aII were located in the third jurisdiction, the International Settlement, .an entity unique in world politics. This International Settlement did not belong to any one power; its ruling body, known as the Shanghai Municipal Council and elected by the ,"ratepayers," was composed of citizens of a number of powers. Although "international" in outward appearance, during most of its history the Council was effectively controJled by British interests. The settlement's law enforcement agency was the Shanghai Municipal Police (SMP). While the force included Chinese, Indian, and later Russian and Japanese personnel, until World War II the Commissioner and senior officers were alwaj,s British. The functions of the police force were dictated by the strange political demarcations of Shanghai and by the opportunities they presented for criminal activity. ·The SMP.Special Branch also served as an intel1igence gathering and, occasionally, as an executive arm of the British Secret Intelligence Service in the Far East. As a center of political activity in China and the home of a cosmopolitan population (including thousands of White Russian emigr~. as well as 20,000 Jewish refugees), Shanghai was a natural target for intelligence operations by several powers.

In 1938, as the Japanese expanded their control over sections of China, they demanded increased representation on the Shanghai Municipal Council and also on its ·police force. After Pearl Harbor the Japanese invited the British and American personnel serving on both to continue their duties under Japanese supervision; however, by July 1942, all British officers of the SMP had been forced to resign. These individuals later spent the remainder of the war in internment camps. When the Japanese took over the city in December 1941, they left the collection of.police files largely intact. The only ones that they apparently removed were Special Branch reports on Japanese personalities. In the spring of 1949, as Communist forces approached Shanghai, the Nationalist Chinese garrison commander gave the remaining Special Branch files to the local American Strategic Services Unit (SSU), a military intelligence successor of the OSS. (The SSU was later integrated into the Central InteI1igence Agency.) When the files were hurriedly loaded on board an American warship, some of the boxes fell into the Whangpoo River; others were damaged when the ship transporting them ran into a typhoon. However, most of the files safely reached Japan and, eventually, the United States. General C. A. Willoughby, Assistant Chief of Staff, G-2 (Military Intelligence), in General Douglas MacArthur's Far Eastern Command, used the files as the main source for his special investigation of Soviet double agent Richard Sorge, who served in Shanghai in the I930's. Several volumes of extracted materials were bound up for this purpose. The records were eventually transferred to the Central Intelligence Agency and later to the National Archives.

Records  Description

Records of the Shanghai Municipal Police transferred to the National Archives included both microfilm and original records. The major portion of the microfilm, 67 rolls identified as the "investigation files," was created by the U.S. Army, apparently in support of General Willoughby'"investigative activities. It is this Army-prepared microfilm that constitutes M1750. The criteria for selection of records to be film~ are not known; the effort did not always preserve the SMP's original filing-schemes and Sometimes only portions of a particular file were filmed. Nevertheless, the film makes accessible a substantial portion of some very interesting records, and numerous researchers have requested copies of it. This publication responds to that interest. Because this film was not created under ideal filming conditions, there are problems associated with its use. Archivists working with the files of the Shanghai Municipal Police in National Archives custody have learned that while there is considerable overlap between the microfilm and the paper records, many paper records were not filmed and some filmed files were not transferred to the National Archives in paper form. Appendix A is a list of investigative files of the S:MP from which records were selected for inclusion in Ml750. The arrangement of the listed files follows as closely as possible the order apparently intended by the Shanghai Municipal Police. The list includes records that exist only on paper, records that exist only on microfilm, and records that exist both on paper and on microfilm. The list distinguishes between these record types in the following manner: list entries for records that exist only on paper include a box number, a file number. and a file description, but no roll number; list entries that exist only on microfilm include a roll number, a file number, and a file description, but no box number; and list entries that exist in both paper and microfilm include a box number, a roll number, a file number, and a file description. In some cases file descriptions are transcribed file titles, even to the extent of retaining the original British spelling of words; but in most cases they are NARA-prepared summaries of file content.

Appendix B describes other records of the Shanghai Municipal Police that have been allocated to National Archives Record Group 263. These include the "Willoughby Collection," the SMP documents selected and bound in 20 volumes by G-2 (Military Intelligence) in connection with the Sorge investigation; a microfilm copy of registration cards of Russian emigrants, 1940-4S; a microfilm copy of registration certificates of the Russian Emigrants Committee, 1944-4S; a microfilm copy of the Tsingtao Registration Cards, 194649; and miscellaneous other records.

Records of the Shanghai Municipal Police 1894-1949 - Rolls 36-381929Records of the Central Intelligence Agency. Record Group 363. Pamphlet describing M1750Chinese, English, French

The text that follows is the introduction to the collection of microfilms in the guide published by the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA). The guide is also available on this digital library in the Book section.

INTRODUCTION

On the 67 rolls of this microfilm publication, M1750, are reproduced some of the Shanghai Municipal Police investigation files, 1894-1944. These files are part of the records of the Central Intelligence Agency, Record Group (RG) 263.

Background

Before World War II, Shanghai was divided into three sovereign jurisdictions. The French Concession occupied a small area close to the city center while the largest jurisdiction, both in population and area, was the Chinese Municipality of Greater Shanghai; part of the Republic of China. However, the city's commercial and industrial core, the great port, fashionable clubs, hotels, and consulates aII were located in the third jurisdiction, the International Settlement, .an entity unique in world politics. This International Settlement did not belong to any one power; its ruling body, known as the Shanghai Municipal Council and elected by the ,"ratepayers," was composed of citizens of a number of powers. Although "international" in outward appearance, during most of its history the Council was effectively controJled by British interests. The settlement's law enforcement agency was the Shanghai Municipal Police (SMP). While the force included Chinese, Indian, and later Russian and Japanese personnel, until World War II the Commissioner and senior officers were alwaj,s British. The functions of the police force were dictated by the strange political demarcations of Shanghai and by the opportunities they presented for criminal activity. ·The SMP.Special Branch also served as an intel1igence gathering and, occasionally, as an executive arm of the British Secret Intelligence Service in the Far East. As a center of political activity in China and the home of a cosmopolitan population (including thousands of White Russian emigr~. as well as 20,000 Jewish refugees), Shanghai was a natural target for intelligence operations by several powers.

In 1938, as the Japanese expanded their control over sections of China, they demanded increased representation on the Shanghai Municipal Council and also on its ·police force. After Pearl Harbor the Japanese invited the British and American personnel serving on both to continue their duties under Japanese supervision; however, by July 1942, all British officers of the SMP had been forced to resign. These individuals later spent the remainder of the war in internment camps. When the Japanese took over the city in December 1941, they left the collection of.police files largely intact. The only ones that they apparently removed were Special Branch reports on Japanese personalities. In the spring of 1949, as Communist forces approached Shanghai, the Nationalist Chinese garrison commander gave the remaining Special Branch files to the local American Strategic Services Unit (SSU), a military intelligence successor of the OSS. (The SSU was later integrated into the Central InteI1igence Agency.) When the files were hurriedly loaded on board an American warship, some of the boxes fell into the Whangpoo River; others were damaged when the ship transporting them ran into a typhoon. However, most of the files safely reached Japan and, eventually, the United States. General C. A. Willoughby, Assistant Chief of Staff, G-2 (Military Intelligence), in General Douglas MacArthur's Far Eastern Command, used the files as the main source for his special investigation of Soviet double agent Richard Sorge, who served in Shanghai in the I930's. Several volumes of extracted materials were bound up for this purpose. The records were eventually transferred to the Central Intelligence Agency and later to the National Archives.

Records  Description

Records of the Shanghai Municipal Police transferred to the National Archives included both microfilm and original records. The major portion of the microfilm, 67 rolls identified as the "investigation files," was created by the U.S. Army, apparently in support of General Willoughby'"investigative activities. It is this Army-prepared microfilm that constitutes M1750. The criteria for selection of records to be film~ are not known; the effort did not always preserve the SMP's original filing-schemes and Sometimes only portions of a particular file were filmed. Nevertheless, the film makes accessible a substantial portion of some very interesting records, and numerous researchers have requested copies of it. This publication responds to that interest. Because this film was not created under ideal filming conditions, there are problems associated with its use. Archivists working with the files of the Shanghai Municipal Police in National Archives custody have learned that while there is considerable overlap between the microfilm and the paper records, many paper records were not filmed and some filmed files were not transferred to the National Archives in paper form. Appendix A is a list of investigative files of the S:MP from which records were selected for inclusion in Ml750. The arrangement of the listed files follows as closely as possible the order apparently intended by the Shanghai Municipal Police. The list includes records that exist only on paper, records that exist only on microfilm, and records that exist both on paper and on microfilm. The list distinguishes between these record types in the following manner: list entries for records that exist only on paper include a box number, a file number. and a file description, but no roll number; list entries that exist only on microfilm include a roll number, a file number, and a file description, but no box number; and list entries that exist in both paper and microfilm include a box number, a roll number, a file number, and a file description. In some cases file descriptions are transcribed file titles, even to the extent of retaining the original British spelling of words; but in most cases they are NARA-prepared summaries of file content.

Appendix B describes other records of the Shanghai Municipal Police that have been allocated to National Archives Record Group 263. These include the "Willoughby Collection," the SMP documents selected and bound in 20 volumes by G-2 (Military Intelligence) in connection with the Sorge investigation; a microfilm copy of registration cards of Russian emigrants, 1940-4S; a microfilm copy of registration certificates of the Russian Emigrants Committee, 1944-4S; a microfilm copy of the Tsingtao Registration Cards, 194649; and miscellaneous other records.

Records of the Shanghai Municipal Police 1894-1949 - Rolls 39 & 411929Records of the Central Intelligence Agency. Record Group 363. Pamphlet describing M1750Chinese, English, French

The text that follows is the introduction to the collection of microfilms in the guide published by the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA). The guide is also available on this digital library in the Book section.

INTRODUCTION

On the 67 rolls of this microfilm publication, M1750, are reproduced some of the Shanghai Municipal Police investigation files, 1894-1944. These files are part of the records of the Central Intelligence Agency, Record Group (RG) 263.

Background

Before World War II, Shanghai was divided into three sovereign jurisdictions. The French Concession occupied a small area close to the city center while the largest jurisdiction, both in population and area, was the Chinese Municipality of Greater Shanghai; part of the Republic of China. However, the city's commercial and industrial core, the great port, fashionable clubs, hotels, and consulates aII were located in the third jurisdiction, the International Settlement, .an entity unique in world politics. This International Settlement did not belong to any one power; its ruling body, known as the Shanghai Municipal Council and elected by the ,"ratepayers," was composed of citizens of a number of powers. Although "international" in outward appearance, during most of its history the Council was effectively controJled by British interests. The settlement's law enforcement agency was the Shanghai Municipal Police (SMP). While the force included Chinese, Indian, and later Russian and Japanese personnel, until World War II the Commissioner and senior officers were alwaj,s British. The functions of the police force were dictated by the strange political demarcations of Shanghai and by the opportunities they presented for criminal activity. ·The SMP.Special Branch also served as an intel1igence gathering and, occasionally, as an executive arm of the British Secret Intelligence Service in the Far East. As a center of political activity in China and the home of a cosmopolitan population (including thousands of White Russian emigr~. as well as 20,000 Jewish refugees), Shanghai was a natural target for intelligence operations by several powers.

In 1938, as the Japanese expanded their control over sections of China, they demanded increased representation on the Shanghai Municipal Council and also on its ·police force. After Pearl Harbor the Japanese invited the British and American personnel serving on both to continue their duties under Japanese supervision; however, by July 1942, all British officers of the SMP had been forced to resign. These individuals later spent the remainder of the war in internment camps. When the Japanese took over the city in December 1941, they left the collection of.police files largely intact. The only ones that they apparently removed were Special Branch reports on Japanese personalities. In the spring of 1949, as Communist forces approached Shanghai, the Nationalist Chinese garrison commander gave the remaining Special Branch files to the local American Strategic Services Unit (SSU), a military intelligence successor of the OSS. (The SSU was later integrated into the Central InteI1igence Agency.) When the files were hurriedly loaded on board an American warship, some of the boxes fell into the Whangpoo River; others were damaged when the ship transporting them ran into a typhoon. However, most of the files safely reached Japan and, eventually, the United States. General C. A. Willoughby, Assistant Chief of Staff, G-2 (Military Intelligence), in General Douglas MacArthur's Far Eastern Command, used the files as the main source for his special investigation of Soviet double agent Richard Sorge, who served in Shanghai in the I930's. Several volumes of extracted materials were bound up for this purpose. The records were eventually transferred to the Central Intelligence Agency and later to the National Archives.

Records  Description

Records of the Shanghai Municipal Police transferred to the National Archives included both microfilm and original records. The major portion of the microfilm, 67 rolls identified as the "investigation files," was created by the U.S. Army, apparently in support of General Willoughby'"investigative activities. It is this Army-prepared microfilm that constitutes M1750. The criteria for selection of records to be film~ are not known; the effort did not always preserve the SMP's original filing-schemes and Sometimes only portions of a particular file were filmed. Nevertheless, the film makes accessible a substantial portion of some very interesting records, and numerous researchers have requested copies of it. This publication responds to that interest. Because this film was not created under ideal filming conditions, there are problems associated with its use. Archivists working with the files of the Shanghai Municipal Police in National Archives custody have learned that while there is considerable overlap between the microfilm and the paper records, many paper records were not filmed and some filmed files were not transferred to the National Archives in paper form. Appendix A is a list of investigative files of the S:MP from which records were selected for inclusion in Ml750. The arrangement of the listed files follows as closely as possible the order apparently intended by the Shanghai Municipal Police. The list includes records that exist only on paper, records that exist only on microfilm, and records that exist both on paper and on microfilm. The list distinguishes between these record types in the following manner: list entries for records that exist only on paper include a box number, a file number. and a file description, but no roll number; list entries that exist only on microfilm include a roll number, a file number, and a file description, but no box number; and list entries that exist in both paper and microfilm include a box number, a roll number, a file number, and a file description. In some cases file descriptions are transcribed file titles, even to the extent of retaining the original British spelling of words; but in most cases they are NARA-prepared summaries of file content.

Appendix B describes other records of the Shanghai Municipal Police that have been allocated to National Archives Record Group 263. These include the "Willoughby Collection," the SMP documents selected and bound in 20 volumes by G-2 (Military Intelligence) in connection with the Sorge investigation; a microfilm copy of registration cards of Russian emigrants, 1940-4S; a microfilm copy of registration certificates of the Russian Emigrants Committee, 1944-4S; a microfilm copy of the Tsingtao Registration Cards, 194649; and miscellaneous other records.

Records of the Shanghai Municipal Police 1894-1949 - Rolls 42-441929Records of the Central Intelligence Agency. Record Group 363. Pamphlet describing M1750Chinese, English, French

The text that follows is the introduction to the collection of microfilms in the guide published by the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA). The guide is also available on this digital library in the Book section.

INTRODUCTION

On the 67 rolls of this microfilm publication, M1750, are reproduced some of the Shanghai Municipal Police investigation files, 1894-1944. These files are part of the records of the Central Intelligence Agency, Record Group (RG) 263.

Background

Before World War II, Shanghai was divided into three sovereign jurisdictions. The French Concession occupied a small area close to the city center while the largest jurisdiction, both in population and area, was the Chinese Municipality of Greater Shanghai; part of the Republic of China. However, the city's commercial and industrial core, the great port, fashionable clubs, hotels, and consulates aII were located in the third jurisdiction, the International Settlement, .an entity unique in world politics. This International Settlement did not belong to any one power; its ruling body, known as the Shanghai Municipal Council and elected by the ,"ratepayers," was composed of citizens of a number of powers. Although "international" in outward appearance, during most of its history the Council was effectively controJled by British interests. The settlement's law enforcement agency was the Shanghai Municipal Police (SMP). While the force included Chinese, Indian, and later Russian and Japanese personnel, until World War II the Commissioner and senior officers were alwaj,s British. The functions of the police force were dictated by the strange political demarcations of Shanghai and by the opportunities they presented for criminal activity. ·The SMP.Special Branch also served as an intel1igence gathering and, occasionally, as an executive arm of the British Secret Intelligence Service in the Far East. As a center of political activity in China and the home of a cosmopolitan population (including thousands of White Russian emigr~. as well as 20,000 Jewish refugees), Shanghai was a natural target for intelligence operations by several powers.

In 1938, as the Japanese expanded their control over sections of China, they demanded increased representation on the Shanghai Municipal Council and also on its ·police force. After Pearl Harbor the Japanese invited the British and American personnel serving on both to continue their duties under Japanese supervision; however, by July 1942, all British officers of the SMP had been forced to resign. These individuals later spent the remainder of the war in internment camps. When the Japanese took over the city in December 1941, they left the collection of.police files largely intact. The only ones that they apparently removed were Special Branch reports on Japanese personalities. In the spring of 1949, as Communist forces approached Shanghai, the Nationalist Chinese garrison commander gave the remaining Special Branch files to the local American Strategic Services Unit (SSU), a military intelligence successor of the OSS. (The SSU was later integrated into the Central InteI1igence Agency.) When the files were hurriedly loaded on board an American warship, some of the boxes fell into the Whangpoo River; others were damaged when the ship transporting them ran into a typhoon. However, most of the files safely reached Japan and, eventually, the United States. General C. A. Willoughby, Assistant Chief of Staff, G-2 (Military Intelligence), in General Douglas MacArthur's Far Eastern Command, used the files as the main source for his special investigation of Soviet double agent Richard Sorge, who served in Shanghai in the I930's. Several volumes of extracted materials were bound up for this purpose. The records were eventually transferred to the Central Intelligence Agency and later to the National Archives.

Records  Description

Records of the Shanghai Municipal Police transferred to the National Archives included both microfilm and original records. The major portion of the microfilm, 67 rolls identified as the "investigation files," was created by the U.S. Army, apparently in support of General Willoughby'"investigative activities. It is this Army-prepared microfilm that constitutes M1750. The criteria for selection of records to be film~ are not known; the effort did not always preserve the SMP's original filing-schemes and Sometimes only portions of a particular file were filmed. Nevertheless, the film makes accessible a substantial portion of some very interesting records, and numerous researchers have requested copies of it. This publication responds to that interest. Because this film was not created under ideal filming conditions, there are problems associated with its use. Archivists working with the files of the Shanghai Municipal Police in National Archives custody have learned that while there is considerable overlap between the microfilm and the paper records, many paper records were not filmed and some filmed files were not transferred to the National Archives in paper form. Appendix A is a list of investigative files of the S:MP from which records were selected for inclusion in Ml750. The arrangement of the listed files follows as closely as possible the order apparently intended by the Shanghai Municipal Police. The list includes records that exist only on paper, records that exist only on microfilm, and records that exist both on paper and on microfilm. The list distinguishes between these record types in the following manner: list entries for records that exist only on paper include a box number, a file number. and a file description, but no roll number; list entries that exist only on microfilm include a roll number, a file number, and a file description, but no box number; and list entries that exist in both paper and microfilm include a box number, a roll number, a file number, and a file description. In some cases file descriptions are transcribed file titles, even to the extent of retaining the original British spelling of words; but in most cases they are NARA-prepared summaries of file content.

Appendix B describes other records of the Shanghai Municipal Police that have been allocated to National Archives Record Group 263. These include the "Willoughby Collection," the SMP documents selected and bound in 20 volumes by G-2 (Military Intelligence) in connection with the Sorge investigation; a microfilm copy of registration cards of Russian emigrants, 1940-4S; a microfilm copy of registration certificates of the Russian Emigrants Committee, 1944-4S; a microfilm copy of the Tsingtao Registration Cards, 194649; and miscellaneous other records.

Records of the Shanghai Municipal Police 1894-1949 - Rolls 45-471929Records of the Central Intelligence Agency. Record Group 363. Pamphlet describing M1750Chinese, English, French

The text that follows is the introduction to the collection of microfilms in the guide published by the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA). The guide is also available on this digital library in the Book section.

INTRODUCTION

On the 67 rolls of this microfilm publication, M1750, are reproduced some of the Shanghai Municipal Police investigation files, 1894-1944. These files are part of the records of the Central Intelligence Agency, Record Group (RG) 263.

Background

Before World War II, Shanghai was divided into three sovereign jurisdictions. The French Concession occupied a small area close to the city center while the largest jurisdiction, both in population and area, was the Chinese Municipality of Greater Shanghai; part of the Republic of China. However, the city's commercial and industrial core, the great port, fashionable clubs, hotels, and consulates aII were located in the third jurisdiction, the International Settlement, .an entity unique in world politics. This International Settlement did not belong to any one power; its ruling body, known as the Shanghai Municipal Council and elected by the ,"ratepayers," was composed of citizens of a number of powers. Although "international" in outward appearance, during most of its history the Council was effectively controJled by British interests. The settlement's law enforcement agency was the Shanghai Municipal Police (SMP). While the force included Chinese, Indian, and later Russian and Japanese personnel, until World War II the Commissioner and senior officers were alwaj,s British. The functions of the police force were dictated by the strange political demarcations of Shanghai and by the opportunities they presented for criminal activity. ·The SMP.Special Branch also served as an intel1igence gathering and, occasionally, as an executive arm of the British Secret Intelligence Service in the Far East. As a center of political activity in China and the home of a cosmopolitan population (including thousands of White Russian emigr~. as well as 20,000 Jewish refugees), Shanghai was a natural target for intelligence operations by several powers.

In 1938, as the Japanese expanded their control over sections of China, they demanded increased representation on the Shanghai Municipal Council and also on its ·police force. After Pearl Harbor the Japanese invited the British and American personnel serving on both to continue their duties under Japanese supervision; however, by July 1942, all British officers of the SMP had been forced to resign. These individuals later spent the remainder of the war in internment camps. When the Japanese took over the city in December 1941, they left the collection of.police files largely intact. The only ones that they apparently removed were Special Branch reports on Japanese personalities. In the spring of 1949, as Communist forces approached Shanghai, the Nationalist Chinese garrison commander gave the remaining Special Branch files to the local American Strategic Services Unit (SSU), a military intelligence successor of the OSS. (The SSU was later integrated into the Central InteI1igence Agency.) When the files were hurriedly loaded on board an American warship, some of the boxes fell into the Whangpoo River; others were damaged when the ship transporting them ran into a typhoon. However, most of the files safely reached Japan and, eventually, the United States. General C. A. Willoughby, Assistant Chief of Staff, G-2 (Military Intelligence), in General Douglas MacArthur's Far Eastern Command, used the files as the main source for his special investigation of Soviet double agent Richard Sorge, who served in Shanghai in the I930's. Several volumes of extracted materials were bound up for this purpose. The records were eventually transferred to the Central Intelligence Agency and later to the National Archives.

Records  Description

Records of the Shanghai Municipal Police transferred to the National Archives included both microfilm and original records. The major portion of the microfilm, 67 rolls identified as the "investigation files," was created by the U.S. Army, apparently in support of General Willoughby'"investigative activities. It is this Army-prepared microfilm that constitutes M1750. The criteria for selection of records to be film~ are not known; the effort did not always preserve the SMP's original filing-schemes and Sometimes only portions of a particular file were filmed. Nevertheless, the film makes accessible a substantial portion of some very interesting records, and numerous researchers have requested copies of it. This publication responds to that interest. Because this film was not created under ideal filming conditions, there are problems associated with its use. Archivists working with the files of the Shanghai Municipal Police in National Archives custody have learned that while there is considerable overlap between the microfilm and the paper records, many paper records were not filmed and some filmed files were not transferred to the National Archives in paper form. Appendix A is a list of investigative files of the S:MP from which records were selected for inclusion in Ml750. The arrangement of the listed files follows as closely as possible the order apparently intended by the Shanghai Municipal Police. The list includes records that exist only on paper, records that exist only on microfilm, and records that exist both on paper and on microfilm. The list distinguishes between these record types in the following manner: list entries for records that exist only on paper include a box number, a file number. and a file description, but no roll number; list entries that exist only on microfilm include a roll number, a file number, and a file description, but no box number; and list entries that exist in both paper and microfilm include a box number, a roll number, a file number, and a file description. In some cases file descriptions are transcribed file titles, even to the extent of retaining the original British spelling of words; but in most cases they are NARA-prepared summaries of file content.

Appendix B describes other records of the Shanghai Municipal Police that have been allocated to National Archives Record Group 263. These include the "Willoughby Collection," the SMP documents selected and bound in 20 volumes by G-2 (Military Intelligence) in connection with the Sorge investigation; a microfilm copy of registration cards of Russian emigrants, 1940-4S; a microfilm copy of registration certificates of the Russian Emigrants Committee, 1944-4S; a microfilm copy of the Tsingtao Registration Cards, 194649; and miscellaneous other records.

Records of the Shanghai Municipal Police 1894-1949 - Rolls 48-501929Records of the Central Intelligence Agency. Record Group 363. Pamphlet describing M1750Chinese, English, French

The text that follows is the introduction to the collection of microfilms in the guide published by the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA). The guide is also available on this digital library in the Book section.

INTRODUCTION

On the 67 rolls of this microfilm publication, M1750, are reproduced some of the Shanghai Municipal Police investigation files, 1894-1944. These files are part of the records of the Central Intelligence Agency, Record Group (RG) 263.

Background

Before World War II, Shanghai was divided into three sovereign jurisdictions. The French Concession occupied a small area close to the city center while the largest jurisdiction, both in population and area, was the Chinese Municipality of Greater Shanghai; part of the Republic of China. However, the city's commercial and industrial core, the great port, fashionable clubs, hotels, and consulates aII were located in the third jurisdiction, the International Settlement, .an entity unique in world politics. This International Settlement did not belong to any one power; its ruling body, known as the Shanghai Municipal Council and elected by the ,"ratepayers," was composed of citizens of a number of powers. Although "international" in outward appearance, during most of its history the Council was effectively controJled by British interests. The settlement's law enforcement agency was the Shanghai Municipal Police (SMP). While the force included Chinese, Indian, and later Russian and Japanese personnel, until World War II the Commissioner and senior officers were alwaj,s British. The functions of the police force were dictated by the strange political demarcations of Shanghai and by the opportunities they presented for criminal activity. ·The SMP.Special Branch also served as an intel1igence gathering and, occasionally, as an executive arm of the British Secret Intelligence Service in the Far East. As a center of political activity in China and the home of a cosmopolitan population (including thousands of White Russian emigr~. as well as 20,000 Jewish refugees), Shanghai was a natural target for intelligence operations by several powers.

In 1938, as the Japanese expanded their control over sections of China, they demanded increased representation on the Shanghai Municipal Council and also on its ·police force. After Pearl Harbor the Japanese invited the British and American personnel serving on both to continue their duties under Japanese supervision; however, by July 1942, all British officers of the SMP had been forced to resign. These individuals later spent the remainder of the war in internment camps. When the Japanese took over the city in December 1941, they left the collection of.police files largely intact. The only ones that they apparently removed were Special Branch reports on Japanese personalities. In the spring of 1949, as Communist forces approached Shanghai, the Nationalist Chinese garrison commander gave the remaining Special Branch files to the local American Strategic Services Unit (SSU), a military intelligence successor of the OSS. (The SSU was later integrated into the Central InteI1igence Agency.) When the files were hurriedly loaded on board an American warship, some of the boxes fell into the Whangpoo River; others were damaged when the ship transporting them ran into a typhoon. However, most of the files safely reached Japan and, eventually, the United States. General C. A. Willoughby, Assistant Chief of Staff, G-2 (Military Intelligence), in General Douglas MacArthur's Far Eastern Command, used the files as the main source for his special investigation of Soviet double agent Richard Sorge, who served in Shanghai in the I930's. Several volumes of extracted materials were bound up for this purpose. The records were eventually transferred to the Central Intelligence Agency and later to the National Archives.

Records  Description

Records of the Shanghai Municipal Police transferred to the National Archives included both microfilm and original records. The major portion of the microfilm, 67 rolls identified as the "investigation files," was created by the U.S. Army, apparently in support of General Willoughby'"investigative activities. It is this Army-prepared microfilm that constitutes M1750. The criteria for selection of records to be film~ are not known; the effort did not always preserve the SMP's original filing-schemes and Sometimes only portions of a particular file were filmed. Nevertheless, the film makes accessible a substantial portion of some very interesting records, and numerous researchers have requested copies of it. This publication responds to that interest. Because this film was not created under ideal filming conditions, there are problems associated with its use. Archivists working with the files of the Shanghai Municipal Police in National Archives custody have learned that while there is considerable overlap between the microfilm and the paper records, many paper records were not filmed and some filmed files were not transferred to the National Archives in paper form. Appendix A is a list of investigative files of the S:MP from which records were selected for inclusion in Ml750. The arrangement of the listed files follows as closely as possible the order apparently intended by the Shanghai Municipal Police. The list includes records that exist only on paper, records that exist only on microfilm, and records that exist both on paper and on microfilm. The list distinguishes between these record types in the following manner: list entries for records that exist only on paper include a box number, a file number. and a file description, but no roll number; list entries that exist only on microfilm include a roll number, a file number, and a file description, but no box number; and list entries that exist in both paper and microfilm include a box number, a roll number, a file number, and a file description. In some cases file descriptions are transcribed file titles, even to the extent of retaining the original British spelling of words; but in most cases they are NARA-prepared summaries of file content.

Appendix B describes other records of the Shanghai Municipal Police that have been allocated to National Archives Record Group 263. These include the "Willoughby Collection," the SMP documents selected and bound in 20 volumes by G-2 (Military Intelligence) in connection with the Sorge investigation; a microfilm copy of registration cards of Russian emigrants, 1940-4S; a microfilm copy of registration certificates of the Russian Emigrants Committee, 1944-4S; a microfilm copy of the Tsingtao Registration Cards, 194649; and miscellaneous other records.

Records of the Shanghai Municipal Police 1894-1949 - Rolls 51-53 [52]1929Records of the Central Intelligence Agency. Record Group 363. Pamphlet describing M1750Chinese, English, French

The text that follows is the introduction to the collection of microfilms in the guide published by the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA). The guide is also available on this digital library in the Book section.

INTRODUCTION

On the 67 rolls of this microfilm publication, M1750, are reproduced some of the Shanghai Municipal Police investigation files, 1894-1944. These files are part of the records of the Central Intelligence Agency, Record Group (RG) 263.

Background

Before World War II, Shanghai was divided into three sovereign jurisdictions. The French Concession occupied a small area close to the city center while the largest jurisdiction, both in population and area, was the Chinese Municipality of Greater Shanghai; part of the Republic of China. However, the city's commercial and industrial core, the great port, fashionable clubs, hotels, and consulates aII were located in the third jurisdiction, the International Settlement, .an entity unique in world politics. This International Settlement did not belong to any one power; its ruling body, known as the Shanghai Municipal Council and elected by the ,"ratepayers," was composed of citizens of a number of powers. Although "international" in outward appearance, during most of its history the Council was effectively controJled by British interests. The settlement's law enforcement agency was the Shanghai Municipal Police (SMP). While the force included Chinese, Indian, and later Russian and Japanese personnel, until World War II the Commissioner and senior officers were alwaj,s British. The functions of the police force were dictated by the strange political demarcations of Shanghai and by the opportunities they presented for criminal activity. ·The SMP.Special Branch also served as an intel1igence gathering and, occasionally, as an executive arm of the British Secret Intelligence Service in the Far East. As a center of political activity in China and the home of a cosmopolitan population (including thousands of White Russian emigr~. as well as 20,000 Jewish refugees), Shanghai was a natural target for intelligence operations by several powers.

In 1938, as the Japanese expanded their control over sections of China, they demanded increased representation on the Shanghai Municipal Council and also on its ·police force. After Pearl Harbor the Japanese invited the British and American personnel serving on both to continue their duties under Japanese supervision; however, by July 1942, all British officers of the SMP had been forced to resign. These individuals later spent the remainder of the war in internment camps. When the Japanese took over the city in December 1941, they left the collection of.police files largely intact. The only ones that they apparently removed were Special Branch reports on Japanese personalities. In the spring of 1949, as Communist forces approached Shanghai, the Nationalist Chinese garrison commander gave the remaining Special Branch files to the local American Strategic Services Unit (SSU), a military intelligence successor of the OSS. (The SSU was later integrated into the Central InteI1igence Agency.) When the files were hurriedly loaded on board an American warship, some of the boxes fell into the Whangpoo River; others were damaged when the ship transporting them ran into a typhoon. However, most of the files safely reached Japan and, eventually, the United States. General C. A. Willoughby, Assistant Chief of Staff, G-2 (Military Intelligence), in General Douglas MacArthur's Far Eastern Command, used the files as the main source for his special investigation of Soviet double agent Richard Sorge, who served in Shanghai in the I930's. Several volumes of extracted materials were bound up for this purpose. The records were eventually transferred to the Central Intelligence Agency and later to the National Archives.

Records  Description

Records of the Shanghai Municipal Police transferred to the National Archives included both microfilm and original records. The major portion of the microfilm, 67 rolls identified as the "investigation files," was created by the U.S. Army, apparently in support of General Willoughby'"investigative activities. It is this Army-prepared microfilm that constitutes M1750. The criteria for selection of records to be film~ are not known; the effort did not always preserve the SMP's original filing-schemes and Sometimes only portions of a particular file were filmed. Nevertheless, the film makes accessible a substantial portion of some very interesting records, and numerous researchers have requested copies of it. This publication responds to that interest. Because this film was not created under ideal filming conditions, there are problems associated with its use. Archivists working with the files of the Shanghai Municipal Police in National Archives custody have learned that while there is considerable overlap between the microfilm and the paper records, many paper records were not filmed and some filmed files were not transferred to the National Archives in paper form. Appendix A is a list of investigative files of the S:MP from which records were selected for inclusion in Ml750. The arrangement of the listed files follows as closely as possible the order apparently intended by the Shanghai Municipal Police. The list includes records that exist only on paper, records that exist only on microfilm, and records that exist both on paper and on microfilm. The list distinguishes between these record types in the following manner: list entries for records that exist only on paper include a box number, a file number. and a file description, but no roll number; list entries that exist only on microfilm include a roll number, a file number, and a file description, but no box number; and list entries that exist in both paper and microfilm include a box number, a roll number, a file number, and a file description. In some cases file descriptions are transcribed file titles, even to the extent of retaining the original British spelling of words; but in most cases they are NARA-prepared summaries of file content.

Appendix B describes other records of the Shanghai Municipal Police that have been allocated to National Archives Record Group 263. These include the "Willoughby Collection," the SMP documents selected and bound in 20 volumes by G-2 (Military Intelligence) in connection with the Sorge investigation; a microfilm copy of registration cards of Russian emigrants, 1940-4S; a microfilm copy of registration certificates of the Russian Emigrants Committee, 1944-4S; a microfilm copy of the Tsingtao Registration Cards, 194649; and miscellaneous other records.

Records of the Shanghai Municipal Police 1894-1949 - Rolls 54-561929Records of the Central Intelligence Agency. Record Group 363. Pamphlet describing M1750Chinese, English, French

The text that follows is the introduction to the collection of microfilms in the guide published by the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA). The guide is also available on this digital library in the Book section.

INTRODUCTION

On the 67 rolls of this microfilm publication, M1750, are reproduced some of the Shanghai Municipal Police investigation files, 1894-1944. These files are part of the records of the Central Intelligence Agency, Record Group (RG) 263.

Background

Before World War II, Shanghai was divided into three sovereign jurisdictions. The French Concession occupied a small area close to the city center while the largest jurisdiction, both in population and area, was the Chinese Municipality of Greater Shanghai; part of the Republic of China. However, the city's commercial and industrial core, the great port, fashionable clubs, hotels, and consulates aII were located in the third jurisdiction, the International Settlement, .an entity unique in world politics. This International Settlement did not belong to any one power; its ruling body, known as the Shanghai Municipal Council and elected by the ,"ratepayers," was composed of citizens of a number of powers. Although "international" in outward appearance, during most of its history the Council was effectively controJled by British interests. The settlement's law enforcement agency was the Shanghai Municipal Police (SMP). While the force included Chinese, Indian, and later Russian and Japanese personnel, until World War II the Commissioner and senior officers were alwaj,s British. The functions of the police force were dictated by the strange political demarcations of Shanghai and by the opportunities they presented for criminal activity. ·The SMP.Special Branch also served as an intel1igence gathering and, occasionally, as an executive arm of the British Secret Intelligence Service in the Far East. As a center of political activity in China and the home of a cosmopolitan population (including thousands of White Russian emigr~. as well as 20,000 Jewish refugees), Shanghai was a natural target for intelligence operations by several powers.

In 1938, as the Japanese expanded their control over sections of China, they demanded increased representation on the Shanghai Municipal Council and also on its ·police force. After Pearl Harbor the Japanese invited the British and American personnel serving on both to continue their duties under Japanese supervision; however, by July 1942, all British officers of the SMP had been forced to resign. These individuals later spent the remainder of the war in internment camps. When the Japanese took over the city in December 1941, they left the collection of.police files largely intact. The only ones that they apparently removed were Special Branch reports on Japanese personalities. In the spring of 1949, as Communist forces approached Shanghai, the Nationalist Chinese garrison commander gave the remaining Special Branch files to the local American Strategic Services Unit (SSU), a military intelligence successor of the OSS. (The SSU was later integrated into the Central InteI1igence Agency.) When the files were hurriedly loaded on board an American warship, some of the boxes fell into the Whangpoo River; others were damaged when the ship transporting them ran into a typhoon. However, most of the files safely reached Japan and, eventually, the United States. General C. A. Willoughby, Assistant Chief of Staff, G-2 (Military Intelligence), in General Douglas MacArthur's Far Eastern Command, used the files as the main source for his special investigation of Soviet double agent Richard Sorge, who served in Shanghai in the I930's. Several volumes of extracted materials were bound up for this purpose. The records were eventually transferred to the Central Intelligence Agency and later to the National Archives.

Records  Description

Records of the Shanghai Municipal Police transferred to the National Archives included both microfilm and original records. The major portion of the microfilm, 67 rolls identified as the "investigation files," was created by the U.S. Army, apparently in support of General Willoughby'"investigative activities. It is this Army-prepared microfilm that constitutes M1750. The criteria for selection of records to be film~ are not known; the effort did not always preserve the SMP's original filing-schemes and Sometimes only portions of a particular file were filmed. Nevertheless, the film makes accessible a substantial portion of some very interesting records, and numerous researchers have requested copies of it. This publication responds to that interest. Because this film was not created under ideal filming conditions, there are problems associated with its use. Archivists working with the files of the Shanghai Municipal Police in National Archives custody have learned that while there is considerable overlap between the microfilm and the paper records, many paper records were not filmed and some filmed files were not transferred to the National Archives in paper form. Appendix A is a list of investigative files of the S:MP from which records were selected for inclusion in Ml750. The arrangement of the listed files follows as closely as possible the order apparently intended by the Shanghai Municipal Police. The list includes records that exist only on paper, records that exist only on microfilm, and records that exist both on paper and on microfilm. The list distinguishes between these record types in the following manner: list entries for records that exist only on paper include a box number, a file number. and a file description, but no roll number; list entries that exist only on microfilm include a roll number, a file number, and a file description, but no box number; and list entries that exist in both paper and microfilm include a box number, a roll number, a file number, and a file description. In some cases file descriptions are transcribed file titles, even to the extent of retaining the original British spelling of words; but in most cases they are NARA-prepared summaries of file content.

Appendix B describes other records of the Shanghai Municipal Police that have been allocated to National Archives Record Group 263. These include the "Willoughby Collection," the SMP documents selected and bound in 20 volumes by G-2 (Military Intelligence) in connection with the Sorge investigation; a microfilm copy of registration cards of Russian emigrants, 1940-4S; a microfilm copy of registration certificates of the Russian Emigrants Committee, 1944-4S; a microfilm copy of the Tsingtao Registration Cards, 194649; and miscellaneous other records.

Records of the Shanghai Municipal Police 1894-1949 - Rolls 57-591929Records of the Central Intelligence Agency. Record Group 363. Pamphlet describing M1750Chinese, English, French

The text that follows is the introduction to the collection of microfilms in the guide published by the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA). The guide is also available on this digital library in the Book section.

INTRODUCTION

On the 67 rolls of this microfilm publication, M1750, are reproduced some of the Shanghai Municipal Police investigation files, 1894-1944. These files are part of the records of the Central Intelligence Agency, Record Group (RG) 263.

Background

Before World War II, Shanghai was divided into three sovereign jurisdictions. The French Concession occupied a small area close to the city center while the largest jurisdiction, both in population and area, was the Chinese Municipality of Greater Shanghai; part of the Republic of China. However, the city's commercial and industrial core, the great port, fashionable clubs, hotels, and consulates aII were located in the third jurisdiction, the International Settlement, .an entity unique in world politics. This International Settlement did not belong to any one power; its ruling body, known as the Shanghai Municipal Council and elected by the ,"ratepayers," was composed of citizens of a number of powers. Although "international" in outward appearance, during most of its history the Council was effectively controJled by British interests. The settlement's law enforcement agency was the Shanghai Municipal Police (SMP). While the force included Chinese, Indian, and later Russian and Japanese personnel, until World War II the Commissioner and senior officers were alwaj,s British. The functions of the police force were dictated by the strange political demarcations of Shanghai and by the opportunities they presented for criminal activity. ·The SMP.Special Branch also served as an intel1igence gathering and, occasionally, as an executive arm of the British Secret Intelligence Service in the Far East. As a center of political activity in China and the home of a cosmopolitan population (including thousands of White Russian emigr~. as well as 20,000 Jewish refugees), Shanghai was a natural target for intelligence operations by several powers.

In 1938, as the Japanese expanded their control over sections of China, they demanded increased representation on the Shanghai Municipal Council and also on its ·police force. After Pearl Harbor the Japanese invited the British and American personnel serving on both to continue their duties under Japanese supervision; however, by July 1942, all British officers of the SMP had been forced to resign. These individuals later spent the remainder of the war in internment camps. When the Japanese took over the city in December 1941, they left the collection of.police files largely intact. The only ones that they apparently removed were Special Branch reports on Japanese personalities. In the spring of 1949, as Communist forces approached Shanghai, the Nationalist Chinese garrison commander gave the remaining Special Branch files to the local American Strategic Services Unit (SSU), a military intelligence successor of the OSS. (The SSU was later integrated into the Central InteI1igence Agency.) When the files were hurriedly loaded on board an American warship, some of the boxes fell into the Whangpoo River; others were damaged when the ship transporting them ran into a typhoon. However, most of the files safely reached Japan and, eventually, the United States. General C. A. Willoughby, Assistant Chief of Staff, G-2 (Military Intelligence), in General Douglas MacArthur's Far Eastern Command, used the files as the main source for his special investigation of Soviet double agent Richard Sorge, who served in Shanghai in the I930's. Several volumes of extracted materials were bound up for this purpose. The records were eventually transferred to the Central Intelligence Agency and later to the National Archives.

Records  Description

Records of the Shanghai Municipal Police transferred to the National Archives included both microfilm and original records. The major portion of the microfilm, 67 rolls identified as the "investigation files," was created by the U.S. Army, apparently in support of General Willoughby'"investigative activities. It is this Army-prepared microfilm that constitutes M1750. The criteria for selection of records to be film~ are not known; the effort did not always preserve the SMP's original filing-schemes and Sometimes only portions of a particular file were filmed. Nevertheless, the film makes accessible a substantial portion of some very interesting records, and numerous researchers have requested copies of it. This publication responds to that interest. Because this film was not created under ideal filming conditions, there are problems associated with its use. Archivists working with the files of the Shanghai Municipal Police in National Archives custody have learned that while there is considerable overlap between the microfilm and the paper records, many paper records were not filmed and some filmed files were not transferred to the National Archives in paper form. Appendix A is a list of investigative files of the S:MP from which records were selected for inclusion in Ml750. The arrangement of the listed files follows as closely as possible the order apparently intended by the Shanghai Municipal Police. The list includes records that exist only on paper, records that exist only on microfilm, and records that exist both on paper and on microfilm. The list distinguishes between these record types in the following manner: list entries for records that exist only on paper include a box number, a file number. and a file description, but no roll number; list entries that exist only on microfilm include a roll number, a file number, and a file description, but no box number; and list entries that exist in both paper and microfilm include a box number, a roll number, a file number, and a file description. In some cases file descriptions are transcribed file titles, even to the extent of retaining the original British spelling of words; but in most cases they are NARA-prepared summaries of file content.

Appendix B describes other records of the Shanghai Municipal Police that have been allocated to National Archives Record Group 263. These include the "Willoughby Collection," the SMP documents selected and bound in 20 volumes by G-2 (Military Intelligence) in connection with the Sorge investigation; a microfilm copy of registration cards of Russian emigrants, 1940-45; a microfilm copy of registration certificates of the Russian Emigrants Committee, 1944-4S; a microfilm copy of the Tsingtao Registration Cards, 194649; and miscellaneous other records.

Records of the Shanghai Municipal Police 1894-1949 - Rolls 60-621929Records of the Central Intelligence Agency. Record Group 363. Pamphlet describing M1750Chinese, English, French

The text that follows is the introduction to the collection of microfilms in the guide published by the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA). The guide is also available on this digital library in the Book section.

INTRODUCTION

On the 67 rolls of this microfilm publication, M1750, are reproduced some of the Shanghai Municipal Police investigation files, 1894-1944. These files are part of the records of the Central Intelligence Agency, Record Group (RG) 263.

Background

Before World War II, Shanghai was divided into three sovereign jurisdictions. The French Concession occupied a small area close to the city center while the largest jurisdiction, both in population and area, was the Chinese Municipality of Greater Shanghai; part of the Republic of China. However, the city's commercial and industrial core, the great port, fashionable clubs, hotels, and consulates aII were located in the third jurisdiction, the International Settlement, .an entity unique in world politics. This International Settlement did not belong to any one power; its ruling body, known as the Shanghai Municipal Council and elected by the ,"ratepayers," was composed of citizens of a number of powers. Although "international" in outward appearance, during most of its history the Council was effectively controJled by British interests. The settlement's law enforcement agency was the Shanghai Municipal Police (SMP). While the force included Chinese, Indian, and later Russian and Japanese personnel, until World War II the Commissioner and senior officers were alwaj,s British. The functions of the police force were dictated by the strange political demarcations of Shanghai and by the opportunities they presented for criminal activity. ·The SMP.Special Branch also served as an intel1igence gathering and, occasionally, as an executive arm of the British Secret Intelligence Service in the Far East. As a center of political activity in China and the home of a cosmopolitan population (including thousands of White Russian emigr~. as well as 20,000 Jewish refugees), Shanghai was a natural target for intelligence operations by several powers.

In 1938, as the Japanese expanded their control over sections of China, they demanded increased representation on the Shanghai Municipal Council and also on its ·police force. After Pearl Harbor the Japanese invited the British and American personnel serving on both to continue their duties under Japanese supervision; however, by July 1942, all British officers of the SMP had been forced to resign. These individuals later spent the remainder of the war in internment camps. When the Japanese took over the city in December 1941, they left the collection of.police files largely intact. The only ones that they apparently removed were Special Branch reports on Japanese personalities. In the spring of 1949, as Communist forces approached Shanghai, the Nationalist Chinese garrison commander gave the remaining Special Branch files to the local American Strategic Services Unit (SSU), a military intelligence successor of the OSS. (The SSU was later integrated into the Central InteI1igence Agency.) When the files were hurriedly loaded on board an American warship, some of the boxes fell into the Whangpoo River; others were damaged when the ship transporting them ran into a typhoon. However, most of the files safely reached Japan and, eventually, the United States. General C. A. Willoughby, Assistant Chief of Staff, G-2 (Military Intelligence), in General Douglas MacArthur's Far Eastern Command, used the files as the main source for his special investigation of Soviet double agent Richard Sorge, who served in Shanghai in the I930's. Several volumes of extracted materials were bound up for this purpose. The records were eventually transferred to the Central Intelligence Agency and later to the National Archives.

Records  Description

Records of the Shanghai Municipal Police transferred to the National Archives included both microfilm and original records. The major portion of the microfilm, 67 rolls identified as the "investigation files," was created by the U.S. Army, apparently in support of General Willoughby'"investigative activities. It is this Army-prepared microfilm that constitutes M1750. The criteria for selection of records to be film~ are not known; the effort did not always preserve the SMP's original filing-schemes and Sometimes only portions of a particular file were filmed. Nevertheless, the film makes accessible a substantial portion of some very interesting records, and numerous researchers have requested copies of it. This publication responds to that interest. Because this film was not created under ideal filming conditions, there are problems associated with its use. Archivists working with the files of the Shanghai Municipal Police in National Archives custody have learned that while there is considerable overlap between the microfilm and the paper records, many paper records were not filmed and some filmed files were not transferred to the National Archives in paper form. Appendix A is a list of investigative files of the S:MP from which records were selected for inclusion in Ml750. The arrangement of the listed files follows as closely as possible the order apparently intended by the Shanghai Municipal Police. The list includes records that exist only on paper, records that exist only on microfilm, and records that exist both on paper and on microfilm. The list distinguishes between these record types in the following manner: list entries for records that exist only on paper include a box number, a file number. and a file description, but no roll number; list entries that exist only on microfilm include a roll number, a file number, and a file description, but no box number; and list entries that exist in both paper and microfilm include a box number, a roll number, a file number, and a file description. In some cases file descriptions are transcribed file titles, even to the extent of retaining the original British spelling of words; but in most cases they are NARA-prepared summaries of file content.

Appendix B describes other records of the Shanghai Municipal Police that have been allocated to National Archives Record Group 263. These include the "Willoughby Collection," the SMP documents selected and bound in 20 volumes by G-2 (Military Intelligence) in connection with the Sorge investigation; a microfilm copy of registration cards of Russian emigrants, 1940-4S; a microfilm copy of registration certificates of the Russian Emigrants Committee, 1944-4S; a microfilm copy of the Tsingtao Registration Cards, 194649; and miscellaneous other records.

Records of the Shanghai Municipal Police 1894-1949 - Roll 631929Records of the Central Intelligence Agency. Record Group 363. Pamphlet describing M1750Chinese, English, French

The text that follows is the introduction to the collection of microfilms in the guide published by the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA). The guide is also available on this digital library in the Book section.

INTRODUCTION

On the 67 rolls of this microfilm publication, M1750, are reproduced some of the Shanghai Municipal Police investigation files, 1894-1944. These files are part of the records of the Central Intelligence Agency, Record Group (RG) 263.

Background

Before World War II, Shanghai was divided into three sovereign jurisdictions. The French Concession occupied a small area close to the city center while the largest jurisdiction, both in population and area, was the Chinese Municipality of Greater Shanghai; part of the Republic of China. However, the city's commercial and industrial core, the great port, fashionable clubs, hotels, and consulates aII were located in the third jurisdiction, the International Settlement, .an entity unique in world politics. This International Settlement did not belong to any one power; its ruling body, known as the Shanghai Municipal Council and elected by the ,"ratepayers," was composed of citizens of a number of powers. Although "international" in outward appearance, during most of its history the Council was effectively controJled by British interests. The settlement's law enforcement agency was the Shanghai Municipal Police (SMP). While the force included Chinese, Indian, and later Russian and Japanese personnel, until World War II the Commissioner and senior officers were alwaj,s British. The functions of the police force were dictated by the strange political demarcations of Shanghai and by the opportunities they presented for criminal activity. ·The SMP.Special Branch also served as an intel1igence gathering and, occasionally, as an executive arm of the British Secret Intelligence Service in the Far East. As a center of political activity in China and the home of a cosmopolitan population (including thousands of White Russian emigr~. as well as 20,000 Jewish refugees), Shanghai was a natural target for intelligence operations by several powers.

In 1938, as the Japanese expanded their control over sections of China, they demanded increased representation on the Shanghai Municipal Council and also on its ·police force. After Pearl Harbor the Japanese invited the British and American personnel serving on both to continue their duties under Japanese supervision; however, by July 1942, all British officers of the SMP had been forced to resign. These individuals later spent the remainder of the war in internment camps. When the Japanese took over the city in December 1941, they left the collection of.police files largely intact. The only ones that they apparently removed were Special Branch reports on Japanese personalities. In the spring of 1949, as Communist forces approached Shanghai, the Nationalist Chinese garrison commander gave the remaining Special Branch files to the local American Strategic Services Unit (SSU), a military intelligence successor of the OSS. (The SSU was later integrated into the Central InteI1igence Agency.) When the files were hurriedly loaded on board an American warship, some of the boxes fell into the Whangpoo River; others were damaged when the ship transporting them ran into a typhoon. However, most of the files safely reached Japan and, eventually, the United States. General C. A. Willoughby, Assistant Chief of Staff, G-2 (Military Intelligence), in General Douglas MacArthur's Far Eastern Command, used the files as the main source for his special investigation of Soviet double agent Richard Sorge, who served in Shanghai in the I930's. Several volumes of extracted materials were bound up for this purpose. The records were eventually transferred to the Central Intelligence Agency and later to the National Archives.

Records  Description

Records of the Shanghai Municipal Police transferred to the National Archives included both microfilm and original records. The major portion of the microfilm, 67 rolls identified as the "investigation files," was created by the U.S. Army, apparently in support of General Willoughby'"investigative activities. It is this Army-prepared microfilm that constitutes M1750. The criteria for selection of records to be film~ are not known; the effort did not always preserve the SMP's original filing-schemes and Sometimes only portions of a particular file were filmed. Nevertheless, the film makes accessible a substantial portion of some very interesting records, and numerous researchers have requested copies of it. This publication responds to that interest. Because this film was not created under ideal filming conditions, there are problems associated with its use. Archivists working with the files of the Shanghai Municipal Police in National Archives custody have learned that while there is considerable overlap between the microfilm and the paper records, many paper records were not filmed and some filmed files were not transferred to the National Archives in paper form. Appendix A is a list of investigative files of the S:MP from which records were selected for inclusion in Ml750. The arrangement of the listed files follows as closely as possible the order apparently intended by the Shanghai Municipal Police. The list includes records that exist only on paper, records that exist only on microfilm, and records that exist both on paper and on microfilm. The list distinguishes between these record types in the following manner: list entries for records that exist only on paper include a box number, a file number. and a file description, but no roll number; list entries that exist only on microfilm include a roll number, a file number, and a file description, but no box number; and list entries that exist in both paper and microfilm include a box number, a roll number, a file number, and a file description. In some cases file descriptions are transcribed file titles, even to the extent of retaining the original British spelling of words; but in most cases they are NARA-prepared summaries of file content.

Appendix B describes other records of the Shanghai Municipal Police that have been allocated to National Archives Record Group 263. These include the "Willoughby Collection," the SMP documents selected and bound in 20 volumes by G-2 (Military Intelligence) in connection with the Sorge investigation; a microfilm copy of registration cards of Russian emigrants, 1940-4S; a microfilm copy of registration certificates of the Russian Emigrants Committee, 1944-4S; a microfilm copy of the Tsingtao Registration Cards, 194649; and miscellaneous other records.

Industries of Shanghai1946Chinese Municipal GovernmentChinese, English

Summary of a survey of industries in the Chinese Municipality: type, factories, workforce (English) - Distribution by district (Chinese)

Shanghai population1946Chinese Municipal GovernmentChinese, English

Various tables in Engish and Chinese on the population in various months in 1946

Hu nan qu di ji ce 沪南区地籍册1935Shanghai tu di ju 上海市土地局Chinese

Register of the land properties as recorded in the cadastre for the Hunan District of the Shanghai Municipality

Hu nan qu di ji ce 沪南区地籍册1933Shanghai tu di ju 上海市土地局Chinese

Register of the land properties as recorded in the cadastre for the Hunan District of the Shanghai Municipality

Zhongguo jin dai shi zi liao hui bian 中国近代史资料汇编 - Jiao wu jiao an dang I 教务教案檔(一)1974Zhang, Guiyong 张贵永Chinese
Zhongguo jin dai shi zi liao hui bian 中国近代史资料汇编 - Jiao wu jiao an dang II 教务教案檔(二)1974Zhang, Guiyong 张贵永Chinese
Zhongguo jin dai shi zi liao hui bian 中国近代史资料汇编 - Jiao wu jiao an dang III 教务教案檔(三)1974Zhang, Guiyong 张贵永Chinese
Zhongguo jin dai shi zi liao hui bian 中国近代史资料汇编 - Jiao wu jiao an dang IV 教务教案檔(四)1974Zhang, Guiyong 张贵永Chinese
Zhongguo jin dai shi zi liao hui bian 中国近代史资料汇编 - Jiao wu jiao an dang VII 教务教案檔(七)1974Zhang, Guiyong 张贵永Chinese
Shanghai shi li ge gong mu ji huo zang chang guan li gui ze 上海市立各公墓暨火葬場管理規則Shi can yi hui 市參議會ChineseText adopted at the 23rd session of the Shanghai Municipal Senate (Shanghai shi canyihui) - Undated [1945-1949]
Shanghai shi ren min zheng fu wei sheng ju gong bu huo zang chang, yun gui suo, bing she, bin yi guan ji si li gong mu deng liu zhong guan li gui ding 上海市人民政府衛生局公佈火葬場,運櫃所,丙舍,殯儀舘及私立公幕等六种1949Wei sheng ju 衛生局 (Bureau of Public Health)ChineseThis file contains the text of the earliest regulation on funeral companies (parlors, cemeteries, etc.) by the People's Government of Shanghai, including the minutes of a few essential meetings
Binyi jijiu shangye tongye gonghui 殯儀寄柩商業同業公會1946ChineseThis file contains mostly correspondence between the Funeral Business Trade Association and the Bureau of Social Affairs. Related in part to issues of trade union within the funeral companies. Includes various lists of names of directors of the FBTA.
Lingnan Cemetery 嶺南山莊 Lingnan shan zhuang1947ChineseFile about the issue of land registration in 1947
Lingnan Cemetery 嶺南山莊1947ChineseFile about the removal of the Lingnan Cemetery from its original location by municipal order.
Guang-Zhao shan zhuang pu tong fen chang Heshan xian ying xing jian gu xian you xing ming ce 廣肇山莊普通坆場鶴山縣應行撿骨先友姓名冊1937ChineseRegister of individual burials, Guang-Zhao Cemetery
Lingnan Cemetery 嶺南山莊 Lingnan shan zhuang1951ChineseFile on the final removal of the Lingnan Cemetery from its original location.
Xi'an Cemetery 息安公墓1951ChineseAnnual report of the Xi'an Cemetery (1950)
Shanghai shi gong suo hui guan shan zhuang lian he hui guan yu Shanghai shi ge gong suo hui guan shan zhuang qing kuang biao 上海市公所会馆山庄联合会关于各公所会馆、山庄概况表1950ChineseSituation record of the members of the Federation of guilds, trade association and charity cemeteries of Shanghai
Shanghai shi gong suo hui guan shan zhuang lian he hui 上海市公所会馆山庄联合会1950ChineseThis file contains questionnaires on individual guilds (會館), trade associations (公所) and charity cemeteries (山莊). Contains a lot of data.
Shanghai shi gong suo hui guan shan zhuang lian he hui you guan lian he bing she chou bei wei yuan hui hui yi ji lu he jia zhang 上海市公所會館山莊聯合會有關聯合丙舍籌備委員會會議記錄和簡章1951ChineseThis file is about the planned construction of a joint coffin repository by the Federation of guilds, trade associations and charity cemeteries of Shanghai. It contains documents on the Shanghai Branch of the Chinese People's relief Association (中國人民救濟總會上海市分會).
Lingnan Cemetery 嶺南山莊 Lingnan shan zhuang1937ChineseFile about the land title deed of the Lingnan Cemetery and miscellaneous issues
Map of the Guang-Zhao Guild Cemetery in Jiangwan 廣肇山莊地圖Chinese
Takeover of the International Cemetery (萬國公墓) by the Shanghai Municipal Government1934ChineseFile about the devolution of the Interntional Cemetery to the Shanghai Municipal Government
Pudong Cemetery - Pootung Cemetery - 浦東公墓 1935ChineseAbout money issues related to the Pudong Cemetery.
Song-Hu kang ri zhen wang jiang shi ying zang wei yuan hui 淞滬抗日陣亡將士營葬委員會1933ChineseFile about the construction and repair of cemeteries for the fallen soldiers of the 1932 Shanghai Battle
Jian zhu zhen wang jiang shi gong mu chou bei wei yuan hui 建築陣亡將士公墓籌備委員會1929ChineseFile about fund raising (in Shanghai) for a cemetery for the fallen soldiers (Northern Expedition) at the capital (Nanjing).
Shanghai shi shi li gong mu 上海市市立公墓1929ChineseFile about the initial project of municipal cemeteries in Shanghai and regulations thereof.
Shanghai shi shi li gong mu 上海市市立公墓1931ChineseFile about the establishment fo the First Municipal Cemetery in Shanghai.
Shanghai shi shi li gong mu 上海市市立公墓1934ChineseFile about the establishment fo the First Municipal Cemetery in Shanghai.
Shanghai shi shi li gong mu 上海市市立公墓1936ChineseFile on the First Municipal Cemetery devoted only to establishing a kitchen and a flower hut 花棚.
Takeover of the International Cemetery (萬國公墓) by the Shanghai Municipal Government1933Chinese
Population data and surface of Shanghai Municipality (1947) 上海市面積人口統計表1947Shanghai shi zheng fu min zheng chu 上海市政府民政處ChineseThis file contains the statistics of population in Shanghai for May 1947.
Charter and correspondence of the Funeral Trade Association 上海市殯儀寄柩運髒商業同業公會1951Funeral Trade Association 上海市殯儀寄柩運髒商業同業公會ChineseThis file contains a copy of the new charter of the Funeral Trade Association and various itmes of correspondence, especially letters of resignation of members.
Ji lu 紀錄 Minutes of the Funeral Trade Association 上海市殯儀寄柩運髒同業公會1955Funeral Trade Association 殯儀寄柩運髒同業公會 Binyi jijiu yun zang tong ye gong huiChineseThis file contains the minutes of the meetings of the Executive or Supervisory committees of the Funeral Trade Association from January 1955 to August 1957.
Minutes of the Funeral Trade Association 上海市殯儀寄柩運髒同業公會1955Funeral Trade Association 殯儀寄柩運髒同業公會 Binyi jijiu yun zang tong ye gong huiChineseThis file contains the minutes of the meetings of the Executive or Supervisory committees of the Funeral Trade Association from June 1949 to December 1950.
Minutes of the Federation of guilds, gongsuo and charity cemeteries 公所會館山莊聯合會 Gong suo hui guan shan zhuang lian he hui1951Federation of guilds, gongsuo and charity cemeteries 公所會館山莊聯合會 Gong suo hui guan shan zhuang lian he huiChineseThis file contains the minutes of the meetings of the Executive committee of the Federation of guilds, gongsuo and charity cemeteriesfrom 26 April to 27 June 1951.
Shanghai shi ge ye gong shang ye hu 1955 nian yingyu fenpei she qing shu - Da zhong bin yi guan 上海市各類工商業戶1955年盈餘分配申請書 - 大眾殯儀館1955Da zhong bin yi guan 大眾殯儀館ChineseDetailed financial fiche of Dazhong Funeral Parlor (大眾殯儀館) in 1955, with figures back to 1953. Detailed record of income and the distribution of profits.
Individual fiches of the members of the Federation of guilds, gongsuo and charity cemeteries 公所會館山莊聯合會 Gong suo hui guan shan zhuang lian he hui1950ChineseThis file contains the individual record fiches of the members of the Federation of guilds, gongsuo and charity cemeteries 公所會館山莊聯合會 for 1950. Very rich in data.
   
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