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Title Year Author(s) Abstract 
Note for tourists in the North of China1866Dennys, N.B.
Notes on sightseeing and shopping in Peking1937Ogden, Marcus R.
Nan cun chuo geng lu 南村辍耕录1959Tao, Zongyi 陶宗仪
Nan jing yi shi 南疆逸史Wen, Ruilin 溫睿臨 (清)
Nan shi 南史Li, Yanshou 李延壽 (唐)
Nan Qi shu 南齊書Lan, Zixian 蘭子顯(梁)
Nanhai Kang Youwei xiansheng zhuan Kang Nanhai zi ding nian pu 南海康有為先生傳 康南海自訂年譜Shen, Yunlong 沈雲龍 主編; Zhang,Bozhen 張伯楨; Kang, Youwei 康有為 著
Nan she cong xuan 南社叢選 (1-3)1966Shen, Yunlong 沈雲龍 主編; Hu, Pu'an 胡樸安
Neoliberalism and culture in China and Hong Kong : the countdown of time2010Ren, Hai
New crime in China : public order and human rights2006Keith, Ronald C; Lin, Zhiqiu
Nan you ji 南游記1967
Nihon senryōka Shanhai ni okeru Nitchū yōjin intabyū no kiroku : Kimura Hideo cho "Ajia saiken hiroku, haisen zen'ya" 日本占領下上海における日中要人インタビューの記錄 : 木村英夫著「亜細亜再建秘錄-敗戦前2002Takatsuna Hirofumi (ed.) 高綱博文
Nisshin sensō emaki 日清戦爭繪卷1895Suzuki, Kason 鈴木華村
Nihon to shina : Shanhai jihen o chūshin to shite 日本と支那 : 上海事変を中心として1932Maeshiba, Kakuzō 前芝確三
Name of places on the China Coast and the Yangtze River1904
Name of places on the China Coast and the Yangtze River1882
Nan Yang Xiong Di Yan Cao Gong Si Shi Liao 南洋兄弟烟草公司史料1958Zhong Guo Ke Xue Yuan Shang Hai Jing Ji Yan Jiu Suo 中国科学院上海经济研究所,Shang Hai She Hui Ke Xue Yuan Jing Ji Yan Jiu Suo 上海社会科学院经济研究所

In 1905, brothers Jian Zhaonan and Jian Yujie, both from Nanhai, Guangdong, founded a company in Hong Kong called "Nanyang Brothers Tobacco Company." Initially, they produced "White Crane" brand cigarettes, which gained popularity. However, the company soon faced setbacks and closed down due to competition from British and American tobacco companies. In 1909, they resumed operations and renamed the company "Guangdong Nanyang Brothers Tobacco Company," producing "Double Happiness" cigarettes. In 1916, they established a factory in Shanghai.

In 1918, the company was restructured as Nanyang Brothers Tobacco Corporation Limited, with its headquarters relocated to Shanghai. In 1919, they issued shares to the public, increasing their capital to 15 million Hong Kong dollars, with more than half of the shares owned by the Jian brothers. They set up branch factories in Shanghai, Hong Kong, Hankou, and other places, as well as tin foil factories, printing factories, canning factories, and tobacco curing factories in tobacco-producing areas. Their sales network expanded nationwide and throughout Southeast Asia. During the peak period of Nanyang Brothers, in 1923, Jian Zhaonan, aged 53, suddenly passed away, marking a turning point in the company's fortunes. By 1927, the actual capital reached nearly 20 million yuan. However, after 1927, under the dual pressure of foreign capital and bureaucratic capital, the company's business declined, experiencing consecutive losses from 1928 to 1930, and the capital dwindled to 11.25 million yuan. The company incurred a loss of 2.25 million yuan in 1928 and 3.2 million yuan in 1929. After the severe losses in the late 1920s, from 1930 to 1936, Nanyang's average annual profit was only 700,000 yuan, a fraction of the earlier years' annual profit of 4 million yuan. In 1936, the Jian family actively sought help from Song Ziwen, offering him 200,000 shares at a low price and giving him control over the 200,000 shares they held. In April 1937, Song Ziwen took over Nanyang Brothers Tobacco Company, assuming the position of Chairman. His brother, Song Ziliang, and Shanghai celebrity Du Yuesheng became directors of the company, while Jian Yujie was demoted to the fourth largest shareholder and took on the roles of director and design committee member, effectively assuming a passive position. For the next 12 years, the company was controlled by a bureaucratic group. At the time, Song Ziwen held both public and private positions and utilized funds from the Guangdong Bank, leading the book "Historical Materials of Nanyang Brothers Tobacco Company" published in September 1958 to consider it as "bureaucratic capitalism's plunder and control of national industry." Some argue that this is evidence of Song's corruption. After Song Ziwen took over, Nanyang Brothers managed to survive temporarily. After the July 7th Incident, Nanyang Brothers' factories in Shanghai were bombed by the Japanese, and almost the entire mainland market was lost.

After the establishment of the People's Republic of China, military control was implemented in the Shanghai, Chongqing, Hankou, and Guangzhou factories, confiscating bureaucratic capital and establishing temporary management committees. In February 1951, through a public-private joint venture agreement, Nanyang Brothers Tobacco Company was renamed Public-Private Joint Venture Nanyang Brothers Tobacco Company, with Jian Yujie serving as Vice Chairman and Jian Zhaonan's son, Jian Rilin, appointed as General Manager. By 1957, the company's profits had increased more than tenfold. The Shanghai, Hankou, Guangzhou, and Chongqing factories were successively transformed into separate accounting units and incorporated into the national plan. The Hong Kong factory retained the name Nanyang Brothers Tobacco Corporation Limited and continued to operate. In 1960, the Nanyang board of directors decided to entrust the Hong Kong factory to the General Audit Office of China Bank in Hong Kong. In 1965, the Hong Kong factory relocated from Wan Chai to San Po Kong, and in 1985, it moved again to Matau Kok.

In 1980, the ownership of "Nanyang" officially belonged to the Shanghai Municipal Government. In 1981, the Shanghai Municipal Government registered a wholly-owned subsidiary company called "Shanghai Industrial Company Limited" (the predecessor of "Shanghai Industrial Group") in Hong Kong, and "Nanyang" became a member company under "Shanghai Industrial." In 1987, it was officially transferred to Shanghai Industrial.





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